A persuasive speech on any topic is a performance designed to convince people about something and prove your point. Choosing a suitable topic is crucial for your speech’s success.
Do you need some help with finding easy topics for a persuasive speech? Then check these fantastic and easy ideas from Custom-writing.org team. You will also find here some useful tips and answers to frequent questions.
🔝 Top 12 Easy Persuasive Speech Topics
Start your search for a speech topic with these interesting ideas:
- Freedom is the ultimate human right.
- Life on Mars is possible.
- Obsession with diets is dangerous.
- School uniform should be a must.
- Atlantis didn’t exist: the ultimate proof.
- Ten reasons why people should play PC games.
- Children need private space just as adults do.
- Influencers are unfitting role models for girls.
- Online slang is an important part of youth culture.
- GMO products aren’t as hazardous as people think.
- We shouldn’t split music into “lower” and “refined” genres.
📙 52 Easy Speech Topics with Prompts
Here you will find easy topics in many different fields, including relationships and environment. You can choose to agree or disagree with any of these statements. Choose an idea and captivate your audience with persuasive arguments:
- Children shouldn’t receive pets as gifts. Whether a pet is a good gift is debatable. It is even more complicated when it comes to children. Will it teach a child responsibility? Or will they soon lose interest and relegate all duties to parents?
- All shops and offices should close on Sundays. Everyone is tired after a long week of work or study. Relaxing and recharging is vital for a healthy lifestyle. If the city buzz continues all week long, Monday, Sunday, and all the other days simply blur.
- Art and music should be essential parts of any school curriculum. With university admission committees becoming pickier each year, students race against each other and refine specialized skills. Yet, some claim that focusing on subjects of interest early on makes up for a less well-rounded personality. Art and music have long been parts of traditional education. The question is whether they deserve more attention today.
- School meals don’t have to be delicious as long as they’re healthy. We’ve all heard of alarming obesity rates among American kids. For this reason, it makes sense to care about school meals. Is it more important to provide children with delicious or healthy foods? Can we find the middle ground in this issue?
- Fairy tales are good for young children. From Little Golden Books to Disney’s animated movies, magic stories have won hearts around the world. They teach us kindness and make us believe in the goodness of people. However, some may argue that fairytales are too idealistic, and children should be taught what the real world is like. Do you agree?
- Money is the best gift. Everyone loves birthdays and holidays until they have to shop for impromptu gifts. Guessing what your uncle or your childhood friend would like is often tricky. That’s why some people say that money is the best gift. The receiver gets the freedom to choose whatever they want. But such presents are not as personal and memorable as hand-picked ones.
- We should allow kids to believe in Santa. What makes Christmas magical for children is waiting for Santa to bring them gifts. While some parents play along, others think that children need to grow up as fast as possible. What’s your opinion on this?
- Extracurricular activities are essential for students’ future. Almost everyone has a hobby during their school years. Some may think that extracurricular activities are distracting, while others are convinced that they help to develop valuable skills.
- Talk shows can be educational. Scandals are often at the center of talk shows. Many would agree that they cannot be educational. At the same time, some topics that such shows cover can teach a lesson or two. Demonstrate how this can work.
- Style and hygiene are important for professional success. As the saying goes, you shouldn’t judge the book by its cover. The question is whether it applies to job interviews, meetings, and navigating the corporate world.
- Co-ed or single-sex public schools. What are the main differences between these types of schools? A persuasive speech can reveal profound insights into advantages and drawbacks of each method.
- Federal control over the internet content. The Internet offers a tremendous amount of information. However, some people believe that federal governments should design restrictions for its content.
- Capital punishment should be banned. This topic perfectly fits a persuasive essay format. The death penalty has been a highly controversial issue for a long time. Most societies support the idea to abolish it.
- Laptops and computers can replace textbooks. The convenience of new technologies is not always considered to be the most important aspect. However, many people insist on the idea of replacing textbooks with computers.
- Free public Wi-Fi. Free public Wi-Fi has many advantages, and it has become a significant part of the infrastructure in big cities. Yet, some people are against this technology.
- Internet sources for education. The Internet offers many useful resources for students throughout the world. Thanks to new technologies, educational processes have become more effective.The Internet offers many useful resources for students throughout the world. Thanks to new technologies, educational processes have become more effective.
- The pros and cons of paparazzi. It is another good topic for a persuasive research paper. A free press is a powerful tool that is considered the Fourth Estate. However, paparazzi that make up its substantial part often hinder the purpose of a free press.
- Curse words in music and on television. The freedom of speech not only offers opportunities but also requires certain responsibilities. Do curse words that are widely used in the entertainment industry negatively affect societies?
- The use of headphones and MP3 players. Many clinicians insist on a negative effect of headphones on health. Still, millions of people throughout the world use this device.
- Exotic animals are not pets. Another persuasive presentation might be about people who keep exotic animals like lions or scorpions as pets. The main problem is that these are wild creatures that are supposed to live in nature.
- Bicycles or cars: what should you drive? Environmental issues are a much-discussed topic. Cars are considered to be one of the main sources of air pollution. Hence, many environmental activists suggest using bicycles instead of automobiles.
- Legalization of abortions. This problem divides people into two categories, and one of them perceives abortion as murder. These people oppose the legalization of abortions.
- Study abroad. Many people want to get an education in a foreign country. However, studying abroad has different drawbacks.
- Slaughterhouses. Animal rights are a popular subject for persuasive talks. People around the world believe that animals deserve to be treated more humane. Right now, slaughterhouses are the only effective method to produce meat.
- Reforms in the education system. Education is the major factor that contributes to the prosperity of society. However, the education system requires reforms that enhance its effectiveness.
- Lie detector tests for jobs. Some employers use lie detectors during a hiring process. Many people believe that it violates their constitutional rights.
- Healthcare programs. The healthcare system cannot provide equal services to all citizens. Therefore, it is necessary to design new medical programs.
- Illegal downloading of music and films. The entertainment industry is negatively affected by opportunities that the Internet provides. Various musicians and filmmakers insist on a more severe punishment for the people who illegally get access to their products.
- Street advertisements. Billboards that persuade people to buy unnecessary goods are everywhere. Many individuals suggest forbidding advertisements in the streets.
- Religion in schools. Activists want to make their religions a part of educational programs. However, it is complicated to implement due to the wide diversity of beliefs and values among students.
- Population control. People in some countries should pay additional taxes for their children. Many of them think that such population control policies violate their inherent rights.
- Hands-free devices while driving. Car accidents are a significant issue in many countries. Some people believe that the use of hands-free devices can improve this situation.
- Contrary to popular belief, introverts make great leaders. Extraversion has long been seen as a must for a good leader. After all, leading others means being outspoken, charismatic, and sociable. However, history has seen examples of successful rulers who were on the introverted side.
- All national museums should be free to visit. Museums preserve and transmit a country’s history and culture. If visiting them were more accessible, citizens could be more proud of their homeland. Is it unfair that museums charge both tourists and locals, and should we change this situation?
- Grades in gym class should not affect students’ GPA. School gym class is something that many students are not all that happy about. Indeed, physical ability largely depends on genetics, and setting standards is unfair. Would it be better if grades in gym class were irrelevant to calculating GPA?
- Because of widespread technology use, schools should stop teaching cursive handwriting. These days, children learn to type before they know how to write. For this reason, teaching cursive writing in schools may be a thing of the past. Do you agree with this statement?
- Exams don’t give enough indication about students’ actual knowledge. When it comes to education, standardized tests are often subject to heated debates. It’s true that they were made with good intentions. After all, there should be fair and objective measures of assessing students’ ability. At the same time, tests are often flawed and ignore multiple types of intelligence. Outline these issues in your speech.
- We shouldn’t use real trees for indoor Christmas decoration. It is a sad fact that a lot of fir trees are cut each Christmas. Many people opt for an artificial tree for convenience and to preserve the environment. But researchers say that such trees have a higher carbon footprint compared to the real ones. What should we choose in this situation?
- All students should learn a foreign language at school. The majority of native English speakers never become fluent in a second language. In a world that is becoming increasingly connected, it could be worth introducing a mandatory foreign language at schools.
- It’s unacceptable to correct a foreigner’s grammar when they speak English. English is the most popular language for learning around the world. Many foreigners appreciate an opportunity to improve their command of English. However, they may be insulted by an unexpected grammar lesson mid-conversation.
- The internet should be free for everyone. Nowadays, it’s impossible to imagine life without the internet. Especially with the rise of home offices and distance learning, it became indispensable. Not being able to afford internet costs means being excluded from society.
- Children are not given enough time to play and explore. Helicopter parenting is a relatively new phenomenon.Parents race against each other in providing their children the best opportunities. But at the same time, their overprotection robs children of freedom and playfulness. When it comes to parental involvement, how much is too much?
- Dogs make much better pets than cats. The world’s population is split into two camps—dog and cat people. Both animals are inarguably cute, but the question is who makes a better companion? Cats are known for their independence. In contrast, dogs thrive in close bonds with the owner and show incredible loyalty.
- Sometimes lying can be justified. In the 2019 movie The Farewell, a family hides a cancer diagnosis from an elderly grandmother. She is spared emotional suffering and soon miraculously recovers. The movie ending shows that sometimes lying is not all wrong.
- Bullet journaling is the best self-improvement tool. The technique allows the organization of life and work all in one place. Getting started is easy. Empty notebooks are cheap, and everyone has pens lying around. Moreover, bullet journaling fosters creativity and is a quick, simple method to track one’s life.
- Volunteering is something that everyone should experience. Data shows that pro-social behaviors help people fight anxiety and depression. In other words, altruism makes people feel better about themselves and the world. Volunteering is a form of altruism that offers plenty of psychological benefits and opportunities to make friends.
- Everyone needs stuffed animals. Plushies provide comfort for children and adults alike. Studies show that soft toys reduce negative emotions and give a sense of security. It’s safe to say that the social stigma surrounding them is harmful.
- It’s critical not to skip breakfast in the morning. Maintaining a healthy diet is not that easy with the hectic rhythm of today’s life. Breakfast is often sacrificed due to crazy schedules. Yet, skipping breakfast may have unexpected health consequences.
- We shouldn’t gender children’s toys. Any toy store seems to have a “blue” and a “pink” territory. Girls love dolls and tea parties, while boys like guns and trucks. However, it may be unfair to rob children of opportunities to discover what they actually like.
- Not everyone has to build a career to be happy. Today’s world is largely focused on money and career. Many people think that the meaning of life is to find an occupation and excel at it. Yet happiness could be completely unrelated to one’s professional achievements.
- Schools need classes on personal finance. People forget around 90% of what they’ve learned in a few years after finishing school. Indeed, a lot of subjects have very little to do with everyday concerns. What many people regret learning too late is how to handle personal finance. Maybe schools could set students for life with some practical advice on taxes, loans, and budgeting.
- Traveling without a tour guide will give you the authentic taste of a foreign country. From choosing a destination to booking tickets, planning a trip is often stressful. No wonder many prefer to buy a tour and hire a guide to see the best of a country. Yet, guides rarely take tourists beyond the most popular places.
💬 Easy Speech Topics for Various Fields
Want more persuasive speech topic issues? We have some—just keep reading!
Funny Persuasive Speech Topics
A humorous speech captivates the listeners and lightens up the mood. Do you want to escape your study routine? You’ve come to the right section. Check out these fun ideas:
- Diamonds really are the girls’ best friends.
- Mistakes can change people’s life for the better.
- When you marry someone, you must accept their whole family.
- There should be a law regulating who keeps the pets after a breakup.
- The drinking age should remain as it is now.
- Dogs are better friends and companions than most people.
- Movie companies make villains more attractive than good guys.
- Any president should have a team helping them write posts on Twitter.
- Dogs see humans as their masters, but cats see humans as their slaves.
- Anyone can make modern art and sell it for millions of dollars.
- “Netflix and chill” dates are actually good during pandemics.
- All politicians suffer from the Dunning-Kruger effect (correlation between incompetence and confidence in knowledge.)
- Foolish people live happier lives.
- Emojis are a universal language.
- Hell is a better place than heaven because it has more interesting people.
- Being a night owl is more advantageous than being an early bird.
- Vigilante hackers are real-life superheroes.
- A-grade students will end up working for C-grade students.
- More men should consider wearing skirts in summer.
- Vegetarians don’t care about animals—they want to feel good about themselves.
- The Kardashians are perfect role models.
- College tuition fees should cover coffee.
- It’s best to be friends with all your family members on social media.
- There’s no point in using horoscopes when making big decisions in life.
- Dating a celebrity is actually pretty boring.
- Children don’t need daytime naps—adults do.
- All parents want to have their adult children live with them.
- You shouldn’t marry your best friend—marry your worst enemy instead.
- College textbooks should be turned into short videos.
- Soft cheese is superior to hard cheese.
Video Game Persuasive Speech Topics
Video games have long escaped being a nerdy hobby. With the advent of mobile games, almost everyone plays. If you enjoy the virtual worlds, remember: it’s dangerous to go alone. Take one of our persuasive topics with you.
- Gaming can be a family-friendly activity.
- Playing video games can be a bonding experience for friends.
- Valve should never release Portal 3 and Half-Life 3 because it would ruin the company.
- Gaming can be easily integrated into classroom activities and engage bored students.
- Video games promote violence and lead to aggressive behaviors.
- Gaming addiction should be seen as no less dangerous than alcoholism or smoking.
- Video games provide a healthy outlet for anger and prevent violent outbursts in real life.
- Many young people find their true calling thanks to computer games.
- Narrative games are an art form.
- RPGs promote gender bias.
- Video games make young people antisocial and introverted.
- RPG video games help players develop team-building skills.
- Gamification in education distracts students from learning.
- Parents shouldn’t blame video games for their children’s failing grades.
- League of Legends should have reminders that tell players to take breaks.
- Character designs in games don’t adequately represent women.
- Female players and creators are discriminated against in the gamer community.
- Battle.net, Origins, Epic, and the like should be unified under Steam.
- Young people spend less time outdoors because of video games.
- Violent games introduce children to controversial concepts before they are ready.
- Cybersport should be an alternative to physical education.
- Games teach collaboration, not competition.
- Virtual reality is going to transform the gaming industry.
- Computer game rating systems need to be more stringent.
- It’s unacceptable for people to continue playing games after having kids.
- Streaming will soon replace consoles.
- Playing violent games makes children desensitized to real-life brutality.
- Children need to focus more on school than gaming.
- In recent years, video games have become more violent than ever.
- Social justice topics that promote causes such as equality hurt the popularity of video games.
Simple Persuasive Speech Topics about Music
There’s no doubt that music has a considerable influence on human behavior. Movies use it to stir emotions and companies to promote their products. Even politicians play music in their rallies. Choose one of these simple speech topics and convince your listeners of music’s powerful magic.
- Playing an instrument is not a talent but a skill anyone can learn.
- Music should always remain part of the school curriculum.
- Music artists should be banned from using profanities in their songs.
- Grammys and other awards are purely popularity-based.
- Rap singers promote violent behaviors.
- Music has unique healing powers.
- Genres that a person likes are linked to their personality.
- Music can be used as a powerful marketing tool.
- Calm instrumental tunes increase productivity and should be played in schools.
- The governments should encourage music artists to create more patriotic music.
- Listening to music is a form of therapy.
- Some music genres are objectively better than others.
- Wearing earphones outdoors is dangerous and should be banned.
- Pursuing a career in classical music is not available for people of all social classes.
- Joining a choir can help you develop social skills.
- The US unfairly dominates the global music industry.
- Singing talent shows are biased and don’t measure the actual talent.
- Autotune devalues real vocal training and discourages artists from working on their singing.
- Lip syncing at major events, such as inauguration, should be banned.
- Child music stars are forced to sexualize themselves as they grow up.
- Most aspiring musicians will never become famous.
- Music can be used as a treatment to cure some mental health disorders.
- Looks matter more than talent these days.
- The music business should be more ethical towards creators.
- Children shouldn’t listen to music with violent themes.
- Music that focuses too much on sadness and death can lead to suicides.
- There should be less nudity in music videos.
- Female artists are sexualized by the industry.
- Fan obsession with a musician can be dangerous.
- Having a musical ear depends on genetics only.
Motivational Persuasive Speech Topics
Who doesn’t need a little pumping up sometimes? Motivational speeches are not only great for boosting your peers but also yourself. Find here an inspiring and easy topic to write a speech about:
- You need to set realistic goals to achieve them.
- Achieving success without anyone’s help is impossible.
- Your closest circle defines who you are and what you will achieve.
- Comparing your success to others is more harmful than helpful.
- Regularly taking small steps toward your goal is more important than doing a lot in one day.
- One should follow their dream despite all obstacles.
- It’s useless to sit around and wait for inspiration.
- Success doesn’t always mean earning lots of money.
- Everyone can have their own definition of happiness.
- Becoming successful may mean turning people against you and losing friends.
- Other people’s success shouldn’t discourage you.
- Happiness can only come from within—it is not the responsibility of others.
- The primary source of unhappiness is inadequate expectations.
- Some of us are unhappy because they resist change.
- You should cut off anyone who does not believe in your dreams.
- The majority of people diminishes their achievements and exaggerates failures.
- Actions don’t always speak louder than words.
- Talent means nothing without continuous practice and discipline.
- You can’t control everything, and you don’t have to.
- Human mortality is the best motivation for following one’s dreams.
- Naturally gifted individuals will always have an advantage in life.
- The best investment one can make is in one’s own education and professional skills.
- Ideas can’t change the world unless they are put to practice.
- A person is ultimately responsible for everything that happens to them.
- Staying true to oneself is more important than being liked.
- The only currency that matters is time.
- Taking risks doesn’t mean you have to be fearless.
- Achieving anything meaningful is impossible without sacrifice.
- If you can’t change the situation, change your attitude.
- Following billionaires’ daily routines is completely useless.
Persuasive Speech Topics about Animals
Here are some topics on the important issues surrounding animals. Feel free to use them for your speech.
- Owning pets reduces the risk of getting various diseases.
- Keeping pets has a positive effect on mental health.
- Does being around animals reduce stress?
- Pet therapy can be very effective.
- Growing up with pets is good for children’s development.
- Is it okay for people to have endangered animals as pets?
- Owning a wild animal is not the best idea.
- Exotic pets are dangerous for the owner.
- What are some benefits of animal adoption?
- Why should you adopt a dog?
- Is it ethical to use microchips for pets?
- Breeding animals to create mixed hybrid variations is inhumane.
- We shouldn’t ban animal breeding.
- We should pay more attention to animal welfare worldwide.
- The sterilization of animals is unethical.
- Stray animals are dangerous.
- All kinds of animal experiments should be banned.
- Animal testing in medical research can be justified.
- The castration of animals has more pros than cons.
- Zoos for wild animals should be bigger.
- Zoos are beneficial for scientific research.
- Should animal cruelty be punished more severely?
- Animal abuse in zoos should be stopped.
- Animals do not belong in a circus.
- Animal fight games should be banned.
- Protecting endangered animal species is vital for the environment.
- The law should protect marine animals.
Agriculture Persuasive Speech Topics
Now, let’s look at some speech topics for students that are related to farming and sustainability. We hope that you find them useful.
- Sustainable grazing benefits nature.
- People should buy sustainably harvested products and support local farmers.
- Hydroponic farming has more benefits than conventional farming.
- The use of biosensors improves agriculture productivity.
- The benefits of using solar and wind energy in agriculture.
- Organic foods have more benefits for human health than non-organic foods.
- We should reduce the use of chemicals in agriculture.
- Excessive use of fertilizers leads to contamination of underground water.
- Organic farming reduces the risk of human, animal, and environmental exposure to toxic materials.
- Genetic engineering is necessary in agriculture.
- The public needs to be educated on agriculture.
- Using new technologies in agriculture can help to enhance operation and increase profit.
- Scientists should address risks from the use of pesticides.
- Natural farming is more advantageous than factory farming.
- Farmers in rural areas should be funded by the governments.
- Sustainable agriculture helps to reduce hunger.
- We need an effective technology that helps to analyze the fertility of grounds.
- Every family needs to cultivate a small garden.
- Genetically modified foods are dangerous for consumption.
- Agriculture contributes to the growth of every other sector.
- We should encourage people to invest in agriculture.
- The government should provide free fertilizers for farmers.
- The US government shouldn’t cut its farm subsidies.
- We should limit the number of genetically modified products.
- Farmers should be provided with proper equipment.
- We should use modern automated systems for farming.
- The forests cannot satisfy the increasing demand for wood and energy anymore.
- Agriculture needs to be sustainable.
LGBT Persuasive Speech Topics
The LGBT subject is one of the most important and controversial and topics of today. It has drawn many speculation and arguments over the past decade. Here are some ideas of topics you may use for your persuasive speech.
- People need to be educated more on gender and sexuality.
- Homosexuality is not a mental disorder.
- Do you agree that asexuality is not a disease?
- Prejudice and discrimination against LGBTQ people have a negative psychological impact on individuals and need to be stopped.
- Raising awareness of the LGBTQ community is crucial.
- Hiding and oppressing one’s sexual identity can be harmful.
- Do you think that same-sex marriages should be banned?
- Do you agree that the opposition to the LGBTQ rights movement has the right to exist?
- LGBTQ people should have the same rights as everybody else.
- Lesbian and gay people can be good parents.
- LGBTQ parents don’t impact their children negatively.
- Do you agree that gay and lesbian people should be allowed to raise children?
- Parents play an essential role in raising an LGBTQ child.
- Do you agree that classes on gender identity should be introduced to schools?
- Do you think that there is a need for gender-neutral bathrooms?
- Members of LGBTQ have the right to serve in the military.
- The way television portrays the issues of homosexuality affects people’s perception of the LGBTQ community.
- Do you think that pride marches have a positive effect on society?
- Transgender athletes should be allowed to compete.
- Do you agree that LGBTQ youth faces more injustice in juvenile courts?
- Does LGBTQ culture negatively affect society?
- Gender bias still exists within the LGBTQ community.
- The victimization of LGBTQ adolescence has a negative effect.
- Do you agree that gay stereotypes are harmful?
- The way media portrays transgender people is wrong.
- Technology and social media contributed to the increased acceptance of the LGBTQ community.
- There is a stigma against transgender people in our society.
- Asexuality is often misunderstood.
Simple Speech Topics: Discover Extra 18 Ideas
Below you’ll find some bonus topics from various fields:
- Harry Potter should be on the list of school literature.
- Friendship between a man and a woman is possible.
- Parents shouldn’t tell children about “the birds and the bees.”
- Cartoon violence should not be censored.
- Junk food must be avoided at all costs.
- The Earth needs people’s help: industries must be more environment-friendly.
- Team spirit as the basis of coordination between employees and managers.
- Art shouldn’t be a form of protest against the hardships of reality.
- Democracy as the only reasonable system of government.
- Christmas is more than just a reason for a consumption surge.
- Horror movies are a means to experience adrenalin rush.
- The Simpsons should be recognized as a political and social satire.
- Every teenager must get over the stage of having an idol.
- Chupacabras: the ultimate proof of the spooky creatures’ existence.
✔️ Persuasive Speech: Our Experts’ Recommendations
Remember the tips that will help you develop great topics and write the persuasive speech of your dream:
- Create topics that sound intriguing. This would help you captivate your audience from the get-go.
- Introduce some conflict into your topic. Use your arguments to resolve it.
- Pick the issues you’re interested in. This would make it easier for you to do prepare and deliver the speech.
- Use your sense of humor! It’s especially effective in grabbing your audience’s attention.
Using a speech topic generator would be a great idea in case you decide to have a brainstorming session. Keep in mind that any great persuasive speech should include 3 components: ethos, pathos, and logos.
|👍||Ethos refers to the emotions expressed by the speaker. It helps them to establish authority and credibility.|
|😃||Pathos means the emotions the speaker provokes in their audience. It can be positive as well as negative.|
|🤔||Logos is the logic of the speaker’s arguments. They should make sense in order to be convincing.|
Of all topics persuasive speech writing can be devoted to, the ones mentioned above are the most winning. With these topics, speech writing is easy! Pick the one you like best, and you’ll write a splendid speech.
✏️ Persuasive Speech FAQ
The choice of a persuasive speech topic depends on multiple factors, e.g.:
1. Your audience (its age, interests, how knowledgeable it is)
2. The specific task you get
3. Your personal interests
There is a long list of exciting topics; make sure that you choose the one that meets your criteria.
For a persuasive speech, it’s a nice idea to choose a controversial issue. This will give you space for rhetorical questions, persuasion strategies, exciting examples, etc. A great topic is a key to a successful presentation, so choose it carefully.
Any successful presentation has some components of persuasion in it. A great speaker always uses some communicative strategies to achieve their objectives, namely, to impress and influence the audience. Structure your speech, include exciting examples, and be passionate about what you are saying.
The easiest problems to speak about are those that we are passionate about. It is much easier to interest the audience if you feel personally involved. Thus, easy topics for presentations are different for every person. Think about your hobbies, things you find intriguing, etc.