Rhetorical analysis is never a simple task. This essay type requires you to analyze rhetorical devices in a text and review them from different perspectives. Such an assignment can be a part of an AP Lang exam or a college home task. Either way, you will need a solid outline to succeed with your writing. And we can help you nail it.
In this article by our custom-writing team, you will find:
- the structure of a rhetorical analysis essay;
- a detailed guide and tips for writing a rhetorical essay outline;
- an example and a template for you to download.
📚 Structure of a Rhetorical Analysis Essay: Pre-Writing
The first thing you need to know before you start working on your essay is that the analysis in your paper is strictly rhetorical. In other words, you don’t need to discuss what the author is saying. Instead, it’s a take on how the author says it.
And to understand “how,” you need to find rhetorical appeals. An appeal is a technique that the author uses to convince the reader. The main ones are logos, ethos, and pathos.
The whole analysis is structured around them and divided into 3 parts: appeals in the text’s introduction, in the body paragraphs, and in its conclusion.
Remember that it’s essential to structure your essay in chronological order. To put it simply, it’s better not to describe the appeals from the conclusion before the ones in the introduction. Follow the structure of the text you’re analyzing, and you’ll nail it.
Rhetorical Analysis Triangle
We’ve already mentioned ethos, pathos, and logos. The rhetorical triangle is another name for these 3 main appeals. Let’s examine them in more detail:
|Logos||Logos is the appeal of logic. It includes the usage of argumentation, citing statistics, and referring to facts. You will see a lot of logos in academic writing.|
|Ethos||Ethos (also known as the ethical appeal) aims to convince the reader by taking the authority high ground. For example, authors may demonstrate how skillful or knowledgeable they are in the discussed field to make their claims more impressive.|
|Pathos||The pathos appeals to the reader’s emotions. You can do it by revealing a shocking fact or delivering inspirational statements. Inducing anger, pity, or any other positive or negative emotion counts as pathos.|
In your essay, it’s best to mention all 3 appeals. It’s also necessary to measure their effectiveness and give examples. A good strategy is to find the appeals in the text, underline them, and analyze them before writing the outline.
Each appeal can be characterized by the following:
- Diction. Diction is the words that the author uses to describe the idea. When analyzing diction, you want to find words that stand out in the text.
- Syntax. Simply put, syntax is the order of words used by the author. You can also look at the sentence length as a part of the syntax.
- Punctuation. This characteristic is all about the usage of punctuation marks. Aside from commas, it’s good to pay attention to colons and dashes. Authors can use them to focus the audience’s attention on something or create a dramatic disjunction.
- Tone. It’s the author’s attitude towards the discussed idea. The tone is a combination of diction, syntax, and punctuation. For example, you can tell if the author is interested or not by evaluating the length of sentences.
Remember that all 3 appeals are artistic proofs, and you shouldn’t confuse them with factual evidence. The difference between them lies in the amount of effort:
- Citing factual evidence requires no skill. You create proof just by mentioning the fact.
- In the case of artistic proof, you must use your knowledge of rhetoric to create it.
SOAPS: Rhetorical Analysis
SOAPS is a helpful technique for conducting a rhetorical analysis. It’s fairly popular and is recommended for AP tests. SOAPS stands for:
|Subject||What is the idea of the text?|
|Occasion||What prompted the author to write the text?|
|Audience||Who would find the text interesting? Who is it created for?|
|Purpose||Why did the author write it?|
|Speaker’s characteristics||What is the author’s personality? What do they believe?|
Answering the questions above will make it easy for you to find the necessary appeals.
✍️ How to Write an Outline for a Rhetorical Analysis Essay
Now that you’ve found the appeals and analyzed them, it’s time to write the outline. We will explain it part by part, starting with the introduction.
How to Write an Introduction for a Rhetorical Analysis Essay
In a rhetorical analysis, the introduction is different from that of a regular essay. It covers all the necessary information about the author of the text:
- Name (or names, if there are several authors.)
- Genre and title of the reviewed work.
The author claims that cats are better pets than dogs.
- The target audience that the writer is aiming at.
- The context in which the text was produced, e.g. a specific event.
Aside from that, a rhetorical essay introduction should include a hook and a thesis statement. Want to know how to write them? Keep reading!
How to Write a Hook for a Rhetorical Analysis Essay
A hook is a sentence that grabs the reader’s attention. You can do it by presenting an interesting fact about the author. You may also use an inspiring or amusing quote. Make sure your hook is connected with the text you are writing about.
For example, if you’re analyzing MLK’s I Have a Dream speech, you can hook the reader with the following sentence:
Martin Luther King is widely considered the most famous speaker in history.
Our article on hooks in writing can provide you with e great ideas.
Thesis Statement for Rhetorical Analysis Essay
In a rhetorical analysis essay, you don’t need to create a thesis statement in the usual sense. Instead, you describe the main point made by the author using a rhetorically accurate verb (such as “claims” or “asserts”) followed by a “that” clause.
For example, your thesis can focus on the techniques that the author uses to convince the audience. If we look at the I Have a Dream speech, we will notice several stylistic elements:
|Metaphor||MLK describes the poor financial state of the black community as a “Lonely island of poverty.”|
|Repetition||King repeats the famous phrase “I have a dream” several times during the speech.|
|Symbolism||The speaker refers to the members of the Civil Rights Movement as “my people.”|
It’s not a complete list, but that’s enough to form a decent thesis.
We also need to mention the ideas behind the speech. The main idea is, obviously, equality. So, we’ll put it in our thesis as well. As a result, we have something like this:
Through the skillful usage of metaphor, repetition, and symbolism Martin Luther King effectively fills his audience’s hearts with the idea of unity and equality.
Rhetorical Analysis Body Paragraphs
If you are writing a generic 5-paragraph essay, you can divide your essay’s body into 3 parts:
- A paragraph about appeals in the text introduction.
- A section about rhetorical devices in the text’s body.
- A paragraph about rhetorical devices in the text’s conclusion.
Sometimes there is no distinct structure in a text. If that’s the case, just analyze the appeals in chronological order. You can also split the analysis based on the type of appeals. For example:
- A paragraph about emotional appeals.
- A section about logical appeals.
- A paragraph about ethical appeals.
Each of your essay’s body paragraphs should have 3 key elements:
- Topic sentence that shows what appeal you will discuss in the section.
- Examples that illustrate the rhetorical device you want to showcase.
- Your take on the effectiveness of the given device.
It’s good to remember that every appeal you talk about needs an example. If you can illustrate your claim about a strategy with more examples, then go for it. The more examples, the better.
Good Transition Words for Rhetorical Analysis Essay
Transition words allow you to follow up one idea with another. They also help build connections between paragraphs. Choosing correct transition words depends on the strategy you use. If you want to build a sequence of a cause and its effect, you will need words like “thus” or “hence.” If you’re going to clarify something, you should use a different set of words.
Here’s a list of helpful transition words suitable in different contexts:
|If you need to showcase an example||For example, to illustrate, in particular, for instance.|
|If you need to supplement your information||Actually, furthermore, also, besides, moreover, further, again, indeed.|
|If you need to emphasize something||Above all, undoubtedly, obviously, indeed, especially, surely.|
|If you need to show a cause and its effect||Therefore, as a consequence, for this reason, accordingly, as a result, thus, consequently.|
Rhetorical Analysis Verbs to Use
A rhetorical analysis essay is a serious work that often touches on complex topics. Regular verbs like “tells us” or “shows” don’t always fit it. To make your paper more inclusive and precise, consider using strong verbs.
Strong verbs (or power verbs) are typically used when talking about the author. That includes their strategies, attitude, personality, or ideas.
For example, instead of “the author says,” you can use “suggests” or “clarifies,” depending on the context.
Some other rhetorically accurate verbs include:
- Sheds light
You don’t have to use strong verbs only. If you feel like “says” suits your point better than any strong verb, feel free to use it.
Rhetorical Analysis Essay Conclusion
The conclusion is the ending of your paper. It sums your essay up and underlines the points you’ve made in the body paragraphs. A good conclusion should accomplish several things:
- Paraphrasing the thesis. You shouldn’t just rewrite the thesis from the introduction. The restatement is usually used to demonstrate a deeper understanding of your point.
- A summary of the body paragraphs. Again, simple repetition is not enough. We need to link the points to our thesis and underline the importance of our statements.
- Final thoughts. A powerful epilogue will leave a good impression about your work.
Make sure to avoid including any new ideas or statements. The conclusion is exclusively for summarizing. If you found yourself putting a new assertion in the ending, it’s probably a good idea to restructure your body paragraphs.
📑 Rhetorical Analysis Essay Example Outline & Template
To make the writing process even easier for you, we will show you what an outline for your essay can look like. As an example, we will outline a rhetorical analysis of MLK’s I Have a Dream speech. We are going to structure it according to the appeals.
Have a look:
- Hook. An interesting fact about the MLK or his quote. An emotional start about the importance and the lasting legacy of the speech will also work.
- Background information. All the necessary info about the author. That includes:
- The speaker’s name, occupation, and years of life.
- The context in which the subject of our essay was produced.
- The speech’s target audience.
- Thesis statement. Point out the appeals you are going to write about. Describe their impact on the author’s general argumentation.
- Paragraph 1. The emotional appeals in the speech. Mention the use of pathos.
- Underline the often use of metaphor. Set “lonely island of poverty” and “ocean of material prosperity” as examples.
- Talk about the usage of repetition. Use the constant repetition of “I have a dream…” as an illustration.
- Paragraph 2. The logos and ethos usage in the speech.
- Demonstrate the use of logos. Mention King citing President Lincoln as an authority for his argumentation.
- Showcase the ethos of the speech. Notice that MLK’s Civil Rights Movement logic correlates with social ethics at the time.
- Paragraph 3. The symbolism in the speech. Give several examples of symbolism and their rhetorical effects. Include the following examples:
- Comparing segregation to a “bad check.”
- Referring to the Civil Rights Movement as “my people.”
- Comparing the acquisition of equality to “cashing a check.”
- Restate the thesis. Demonstrate a deeper understanding of the point made in the introduction.
- Summary of the body paragraphs. Connect them to the thesis statement. Give a final take on King’s rhetorical strategies and evaluate their effectiveness.
- Closing thought. Finish by stating the primary goal of your analysis.
Alternatively, you can structure your essay in chronological order. Below you’ll find a template you can use for this type of rhetorical analysis. Simply download the PDF file below and fill in the blanks.
Rhetorical Analysis Outline Template
(your essay’s title)
The speaker/author is (state the author’s name.) The purpose of the text is to (state the text’s purpose.) The text is intended for (describe the text’s intended audience.)
Check out the rhetorical analysis samples below to get some ideas for your paper.
We hope this article helped you with your assignment. Make sure to tell us what part helped you the most in the comments. And good luck with your studies!
🤔 Rhetorical Analysis Essay Outline FAQs
According to SOAPS, the main 5 elements of a rhetorical analysis are:
1. Subject, or the author’s ideas.
2. Occasion, or the text’s background.
3. Audience, or the people who would find the text interesting.
4. Purpose, or the reasoning behind the writing.
5. Speaker’s characteristics, or the author’s personal beliefs.
1. Logos—the appeal to logic. It includes argumentation, statistics, and facts.
2. Ethos— the ethical appeal. Ethos appeal to the morality and ethical norms of the target audience.
3. Pathos—the appeal to the reader’s emotions.
4. Kairos—the time of the argument.
Every rhetorical analysis ends with a conclusion. A good conclusion should:
1. Restate the thesis.
2. Summarize the points and strategies described in the body paragraphs.
3. End with concluding thoughts on the analysis.
A thesis for a rhetorical analysis is a bit different from the usual one. It needs to include the author’s appeals and the main point the author is trying to make. Like any other thesis, it must structure the further analysis and be connected to every paragraph.
Kairos is the timeliness of the argument. It is the appeal of the right time. The usage of kairos usually means that the author’s text is relevant for a certain period of time only.