American Antiquity Style Guide: Citation Rules & Examples [2024]

American Antiquity is a professional quarterly journal, which contains various papers on the American archeology. It is incredibly popular among archeologists and the students majoring in history. The organization adopted the rules of The Society for American Archaeology (SAA) citation style.

As a result:

The journal includes numerous references that play an essential role in establishing credibility. Saying about the American Antiquity citation style, there are two citation types worth to specify: parenthetical citation and in-text reference.

Are you searching for a practical American Antiquity style guide? Take a look at the following article, prepared by our team!

🇺🇸 Parenthetical Citations

As usual, anthropology writers use parenthetical citation. Therefore, American Antiquity citation style guidelines do not recommend using endnotes, footnotes, or numbered citations.

The essential information should be included directly in the text, so the readers can focus on it without losing their attention. Thus, parenthetical citations are widely-used in American Antiquity.

American Antiquity citation samples show that all information sources referred to in your research paper must be identified with explicit citations. Be extremely careful with taking any info from outside sources. Make sure you cite every detail correctly.

Here is the American Antiquity citation format for the parenthetical citations:

  • One author: (Surname year)
    Example: (Smith 2017)
  • Two authors: (Surname and Surname year)
    Example: (Smith and Miliken 2017)
  • Three or more authors: (Surname et al. year)
    Example: (Smith et al. 2017)


Failure to acknowledge the sources (not in American Antiquity referencing only) constitutes plagiarism punished in most cases by dismissal from the university. Check this link and get rid of citation-caused headaches.

💭 Referencing in American Antiquity

After reviewing some American Antiquity citation style examples, you will see that a basic form can be outlined as follows:

  • author’s name;
  • year of publication;
  • specific page or pages on which the material appears.

However, while writing in the American Antiquity style, consider the possible exceptions. For example, if you have sources written by the authors with the same surnames and published the same year, use the following format:

(Initial Surname year; Initial Surname year).


(J. Lock 2009; K. Lock 2009).

Or you might have the source written by the authors with the same surnames and published in different years. Then, follow this format:

(Surname year; Surname year)


(Lock 1998; Lock 2009).

Another challenge you might face is the source with no author specified. In this case, use the organization’s name as an author. The structure would be the following:

(Organization’s name year).


(World Trade Organization 2018).


In American Antiquity referencing, there is no punctuation after the author’s name. A colon is used after the date. You incorporate a comma in the case of any visual reference, a semicolon—when there are the authors with the same surnames.


The Feast of the Dead was taken over by the Algonquians of the northern Great Lakes from the Huron of the Ontario peninsula (Dickerson 1960:87-88).

📋 Quotation and Paraphrasing

Under American Antiquity citation style guidelines, quotations can be depicted as passages reproduced with no modification in the original language. Indirect quotes are paraphrased statements. For referencing in American Antiquity, you must apply direct quotations sparingly. Moreover, you should identify them with quotation marks or space them an inch from the right and left margins (for long single quotes).

Referencing the American Antiquity quotation, always use the author’s surname, year, and page number in the following format:

  • Surname (year: page number)


  • (Surname year: page number)

American Antiquity citation sample (simple quotation):


Speaking on the variations for basic design, Rappoport (1969:5) states, “One begins with the simplest outline, the main features.”


Paraphrasing is a tricky task. Thus, do it sufficiently and carefully. If you are unsure of individual parts, change the wording, grammar structure, or sentence format. Spend more time polishing your quotations, instead of dealing with the plagiarism issue.

🏺 In-Text Reference Citations

There are two formats used in the journals for in-text citations: REVIEWS and BOOK NOTES, and BOOK REVIEW ESSAYS. See the section below to figure out all the differences between the two types of in-text citations.

Generally, all the in-text citations should include the following elements:

  • The author’s surname.
    • Use the initials only if there is more than one author with the same surname.
  • The year of publication.
  • The page number.
    • Use the page number only where appropriate (for direct quotes, definitions, or terms explanation).

In most cases, in-text year citations immediately follow the author(s) name(s). You’re your attention: in all examples, parentheses were used in their standard format. However, they can be converted to brackets when reference citations are used in a text set off in parentheses.

American Antiquity citation style example:


(e.g., Shapiro [1985] on the constitution of “observations” in physics, and Kasson [1989] on observation in science generally).

Here were the basic rules for the in-text citations. To investigate the issue more deeply and explore the aspects of various types of references, consider the next section.

📚 Reviews and Book Notes vs. Book Review Essays

Let’s start with REVIEWS and BOOK NOTES.

In Reviews, references, if at all, should be used sparingly. However, they are never used in Book Notes. American Antiquity citation style guidelines point that if they occur, they should be located in a shortened form and be enclosed in parentheses.

Here you can see specified American Antiquity citation samples for:

  • Writing article: (Atmore, Latin American Antiquity 2:188–211).
  • Book: (Willey, Preface to American Archaeology, vol. 1, 1977).
  • Review: (Tilley, Review of Belford, American Antiquity 57:154–176).
  • Citations to the book review require the page numbers only: (p. 5), (pp. 83–89).

Now, look at the BOOK REVIEW ESSAYS.

In the book reviews essay, citations are quite common. However, it is crucial to follow all the guidelines discussed in the article above to make the work professional:

  • Do not forget about the (Author year page) format.
  • Figure out how to structure exceptional cases (two authors with the same surname, for example).
  • Don’t put inappropriate punctuation, which is very simplified and limited in American Antiquity citations.

Overall, always double-check the guidelines and polish every single detail of your references. A flawless Works Cited list, and correctly inserted in-text citations are the keys to the paper’s success.

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Further reading:

🔗 References

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Comments (2)

Judy D. Adams
Judy D. Adams

Thanks for posting such helpful info on American Antiquity citation style) Excellent examples to follow) Thank you very much)

Benjamin K.
Benjamin K.

Many thanks to you for your American Antiquity citation style post. Using your guidelines, I will cite used literature in my paper without any problems.