What is Vancouver referencing style?
The common answer is that it is a style preferred by students and tutors from courses and faculties related to such subjects as Healthcare, Dentistry, and Medicine.
That’s true. But what of it?
The thing is:
It’s not of crucial importance to know where Vancouver style is preferred and so on.
What really matters is that it is directly connected to your academic success.
Need to write a research paper?
Fine! You can have genius ideas but if you fail to format the text properly — forget about A+.
That’s why we have created this guide. We understand the importance of proper referencing and we want to make it easy for you.
Concentrate on the main ideas of your paper and stop worrying about reference list.
With our guide — there is nothing to worry about.
Let’s start with basic information.
Vancouver referencing style represents a numerical system helping readers identify the sources cited in the body of a paper with those listed in the bibliography by means of adding numbers to each source and citation.
- Margins are set as 1″ (2.54 cm).
- Font is Times New Roman or Arial, and the font size is 12 pt.
- Text of the paper is usually double-spaced, but your instructor can ask to use single spacing.
- Each source cited by an author in their paper should be assigned a unique number.
- Vancouver referencing style is generally used for papers prepared to be published in medical journals, and such papers do not require a cover page.
- If title page is required, it follows a specific format, and an author should provide his or her credentials and address.
- The numbers used for in-text citations can be put in brackets or placed as superscript numbers. The brackets used can be either square  or curved ().
- The type of in-text references has to stay consistent throughout the entire body of the paper. Please avoid using diverse types of in-text references.
A recent survey (1) confirmed the prevalence of dental anxiety in children under the age of five.
A recent survey  confirmed the prevalence of dental anxiety in children under the age of five.
A recent survey1 confirmed the prevalence of dental anxiety in children under the age of five.
- If the name of the cited author is mentioned in a sentence, the numeric in-text citation is placed right after it.
Davidson (12) pointed out that
Davidson12 pointed out that
- In sentences that contain more than one reference, each of the unique sources of information will have its own number.
Researchers identified several different factors contributing to dental anxiety: the expectation of pain1, negative dental treatment experiences that occurred in the past2, and the lack of control over the situation while the patient is in the dentist’s chair3.
- If several sources are cited at the same time, several numbers can be put in brackets or added in the form of superscript.
Methodological triangulation is based on the comparison of the existing findings with the new results or on the analysis of the current results with the help of different instruments designed for the perception assessment (1, 4, 6).
Methodological triangulation is based on the comparison of the existing findings with the new results or on the analysis of the current results with the help of different instruments designed for the perception assessment.1, 4, 6
Note: if the sources cited together in one sentence have the sequential numbers, then they can be referenced using the following forms: (1-4), [1-4], or 1-4.
- Full stops can be put before or after the superscript numbers or the numbers in brackets. Please make sure to consult your instructor or faculty and find out which approach is preferred.
- The reference list should be placed at the end of the paper on a separate page.
- Its title should be ‘References’.
- Only Arabic ordinals (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) should be used in reference lists and in-text citations.
- The numbers matching those in in-text citations are assigned to the sources in reference lists.
- The references are listed in a numerical order with the numbers placed at the beginning of each individual source starting with a new line.
- The references in the reference list should not be indented.
1. Bhola R, Malhotra R. Dental procedures, oral practices, and associated anxiety: A study on late-teenagers. Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014 Aug;5(4): 219-232.
2. Gao X, Hamzah S, Yiu C, McGrath C, King N. Dental fear and
anxiety in children and adolescents: Qualitative study using YouTube. J Med Internet Res. 2013 Feb 22;15(2): e29.
Each source cited by an author in their paper should be assigned a unique number.