General format:

In all the categories, authors’ last names are followed by first and middle initials.


In our citation examples we use the following color coding:

  • Red – Author
  • Blue – Title of book/article/charter/webpage
  • Pink – Date
  • Orange – Website/Publisher
  • Turquoise – Place of publication
  • Violet – Editor/Translator
  • Black – Volume/Issue
  • Sienna – Pages
  • Gold – Book, a part/chapter of which is being cited
  • Peach – Additional information about the source (i.e. its type, specific features etc.)
  • Light magenta – Title of the figure

Single author

List entry: Turner P. 2002. HR forecasting and planning. London (UK): CIPD Publishing. 198 p.

In-text: According to research, “taking a strategic view across the organization is essential” (Turner 2002). OR According to Turner (2002), “taking a strategic view across the organization is essential.”

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Two authors

List entry: Barbara K, Yarnall J. 2012. HR: the business partner. London (UK): Routledge. 374 p.

In-text: (Barbara and Yarnall 2012)

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Three or more authors

List entry: Becker BE, Ulrich D, Huselid MA. 2013. The HR scorecard: linking people, strategy, and performance. Brighton (MA): Harvard Business Press. 473 p.

In-text: (Becker et al. 2013)

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Unknown author

List entry: Fresh perspectives: human resource management. 2006. Upper Saddle River (NJ): Pearson South Africa. 157 p.

In-text: (Fresh perspectives2006)

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Multiple works by the same author

List the works by the same author in chronological order, starting with older items first.

List entry: Turner P. 2002. HR forecasting and planning. London (UK): CIPD Publishing. 198 p.

Turner P. 2007. How to become a good Human Resource Manager. London (UK): CIPD Publishing. 478 p.

In-text: (Turner 2002); (Turner 2007).

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Corporate/Organization author

First include the abbreviation and then the full name of the organization, if available. E.g. [AACN] American Association of Critical-Care Nurses…

List entry: NANDA International. 2014. Nursing diagnoses 2015-17: definitions and classification. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons. 120 p.

In-text: (NANDA International 2014)

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Author with an editor

Mentioning the editors is not essential when the primary author(s) is mentioned.

List entry: Austen J. 2011. Sense and sensibility. Johnson C, editor. New York (NY): Norton.

In-text: (Austen 2001)

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Editor with no Author

It is essential to mention the editor(s) when the primary author(s) is not stated.

List entry: Simons R, editor. 2011. Human Resource Management: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. 120 p.

In-text: (Simons 2011)

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Edition other than first

List entry: Mathis RL, Jackson JH, Valentine SR, Meglich P. 2016. Human resource management. 15th ed. Boston (MA): Cengage. 326 p.

In-text: (Mathis et al. 2016)

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Multivolume work

List entry: Forsythe DP. 2009. Refugees. In: Encyclopedia of human rights. Vol. 1. Oxford (England): OUP. p. 9-10.

In-text: (Forsythe 2009)

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Encyclopedia

List entry: Murray R, editor. 2009. African Union: Banjul charter. In: Encyclopedia of human rights. Vol. 1. Oxford (England): OUP. p. 12-19.

In-text: (Murray 2009)

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Dictionary entry

List entry: Merriam-Webster. 2014. Cheapskate. Merriam Webster’s Dictionary AND Thesaurus: 846. [accessed 2014 Apr 17].

In-text: (Merriam-Webster 2014).

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Chapter in an edited book

List entry: Morgan M. 1999. No woman no cry: claiming African American women’s place. In: Bucholtz M, Lang A, Sutton L, ed. by. Reinventing Identities: The Gendered Self in Discourse. 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 27-45.

In-text: (Morgan 1999).

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Chapter in an edited book (no author)

List entry: Tertiary education: 1850-1970. 1975. In: Turney C, ed. by. Sources in the history of Australian education: a book of readings. 1st ed. Sydney: Angus and Robertson. p. 363-499.

In-text: (Tertiary education1975)

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Foreword, introduction, preface, or afterword

List entry: Forsythe DP. 2009. Refugees. In: Encyclopedia of human rights. Vol. 1. Oxford (England): OUP. Foreword; p. xiii.

In-text: (Forsythe 2009)

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Picture or a figure from a book

List entry: Holtz A, Levi R. 2010. Spinal cord injury. Oxford (England): Oxford University Press. Figure 1.1, Hippocratic traction device; p. 4.

In-text: (Holtz and Levi 2010)

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Secondary citation

It is not advisable to cite a work or document cited by your source. Therefore, it is recommended to find the original writing and reference it accordingly since secondary citing can be considered unreliable in the academic type of paper.

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Forthcoming/unpublished book

List entry: Thomas H. Forthcoming 2017. How does B2B work: becoming a pro in working with businesses. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins University Press.

In-text: (Thomas 2017)

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Further study