In our citation examples we use the following color coding:
- Red – Author
- Blue – Title of book/article/charter/webpage
- Pink – Date
- Orange – Website/Publisher
- Sienna – Pages
Direct quote: A personal tone is established on the very first page: “In my junior high yearbook I had a quote from a Spanish poet” (Sebold 2002, p. 5).
Paraphrasing: The narrator reveals a lot of personal details throughout the story (Sebold 2002).
Note: when paraphrasing, only use page numbers when summarizing an idea from a particular page.
Two or three authors/editors
Direct quote: Lankshear and Knobel (2006, p. 17) argue that “The cultural and critical facets of knowledge integral to being literate are considerable.”
Paraphrasing: According to Lankshear and Knobel (2006, p. 17), literacy encompasses many aspects of knowledge.
Four or more authors/editors
Direct quote: Evans et al. (2003, p. 137) state that the Australian colonists aimed “to eliminate the political rights of Aborigines” in the late 19th century.
Paraphrasing: Between 1870 and 1890, many efforts have been made to constrict the rights of the indigenous populations (Evans et al. 2003, p. 137).
Direct quote: The Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia and New Zealand (2016, p. 18) claims that “the relief in AASB 128 should apply to the ultimate Australian entity.”
Paraphrasing: The Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia and New Zealand (2016, p. 18) explains the use of the relief in AASB 128.
Source with no author/editor
Direct quote: The Oxford dictionary of abbreviations (1998, p. ix) explains that in the pronunciation guide, “Unstressed syllables are not preceded by stress marks.”
Paraphrasing: It is common for unstressed syllables not to be preceded by stress marks (The Oxford dictionary of abbreviations 1998, p. ix).
Both stories take place in a fictional location (King 2008; King 2010).
Same year/same author
In both works, the author uses remote locations to emphasize the feeling of helplessness (King 2008a; King 2008b).
Same work, different editions
Despite the structural similarities between the two editions, there are still some differences in the topics covered (Feldman 2008; 2011).
Source with no date
Arnull and Eagle (n.d.) attempt to examine the patterns of offences committed by girls in different parts of the world.
Source quoted in another work
You can either use a direct quote from the later work that uses a quote from the earlier source or paraphrase to summarize the original idea from the primary source that is addressed in the secondary source. Both cases require you to acknowledge the use of a secondary source in the work you are using for reference.
“Green’s study (1999) (cited in Farmer 2003, p. 13), unlike many of its predecessors, explores the “macro- logics of power” without sacrificing ethnographic depth.”
Image in a book
Direct quote: The figure “The likelihood of aggressive behaviors in boys and girls” presents a comprehensive comparative summary of the statistics of aggressive behavior in boys and girls (Gleitman, Gross & Reisberg 2011, p. 30, fig. 1.9).
Paraphrasing: Empirical evidence shows that aggressive behavor is slightly more prominent in boys than in girls (Gleitman, Gross & Reisberg 2011, p. 30, fig. 1.9).
Direct quote: “Despite the lack of solid research evidence to date, ICTs hold promise in addressing the challenges of mental health care” (Breslau & Engel 2016, p. 17).
Paraphrasing: Breslau and Engel (2016, p. 17) state that, in the future, ICT’s could be used to diagnose and treat patients with mental dysfunctions and illnesses.
Newspaper article (no author)
Since the entire bibliographical information for this type of sources is provided in the in-text citations, there is no need to include them on the Reference List.
Direct quote: The DUP leader states that the upcoming Assembly election “should not be seen as a referendum on her handling of the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) scheme” (‘Assembly election: Most important vote since 1998’ 2017, BBC News, 27 January, para. 2).
Direct quote: “The key sign of central diabetes insipidus is extreme thirst and excessive urination” (WebMD 2016, para. 3).
Paraphrasing: It is a common misconception that the disease called central diabetes insipidus is related to diabetes and caused by metabolic dysfunction (WebMD 2016, para. 1).
Video or film
“The front lines of the invasion moved west to the nations of the Ohio Valley: The Lenape, Shawnee, Miami and others” (500 nations 1995).
Сontrary to video or film sources, the name of the podcast provided in the in-text citation should be italicized.
Evidence suggests that measuring calcium levels in the arterial blood can help to evaluate the risk of heart disease and predict a heart attack (Insomnia, anti- inflammatory safety, assessing heart disease risk, cheaper breast cancer drugs 2017).
Direct quote: As stated by Stellar (2016, p. 13), the classification of public and public class “applies to any field or method.”
Paraphrasing: The main reason for the importance of imposing access control is the need to protect the private information of students and staff (Stellar 2016, p, 16).
Direct quote: A recent review of the cooperation practices used in PFRAs and the local universities revealed that “about half of the research users indicated that they obtained a high or very high level of value from the collaboration” (Department of Education, Science and Training 2004, p. 4).
Paraphrasing: The review outlines the opportunities to enhance the cooperation between PFRAs and the universities (Department of Education, Science and Training 2004).