In our citation examples we use the following color coding:

  • Red – Author
  • Blue – Title of book/article/charter/webpage
  • Pink – Date
  • Green – Title of journal
  • Black – Volume/Issue
  • Sienna – Pages


Pay attention to these rules:

  • if a journal has no issue, it should be omitted.
  • if an article is printed on one page, [p.] should be used instead of [pp.].
  • if there is a colon in the title of an article, do not capitalize the first word that goes right after it.
  • doi is not mentioned in the reference list as a rule. However, if it is required according to your instructions, it should be added after the number of pages (for example, [pp. 17-18. doi: 10.1001/pfi.20005.]).
  • use capitalization only for the name of a journal.

Breslau, J & Engel, C 2016, ‘Information and communication technologies in behavioral health: a literature review with recommendations for the air force’, RAND Health Quarterly, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 17-18.

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Article (no author)

‘Perioperative blood salvage’ 2006, Vox Sanguinis, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 185-192.

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Newspaper article


  • make sure that you add a full publication date (year, day, and month) with no shortenings. Do not forget that it should be separated with the title of an article and the name of a newspaper.
  • use capitalization only for the name of a newspaper.

O’Sallivan, J 2016, ‘Sanders, Clinton fight on credentials’, The Boston Globe, 4 February, p. 3.

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Newspaper article (no author)

A full reference should be provided within an in-text citation. There is no need to repeat this information in the reference list.

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Further study