In our citation examples we use the following color coding:

  • Red – Author
  • Blue – Title of book/article/charter/webpage
  • Pink – Date
  • Orange – Website/Publisher
  • Turquoise – Place of publication
  • Violet – Editor/Translator
  • Gray – URL/database/website where the source is retrieved
  • Gold – Book, a part/chapter of which is being cited
  • Peach – Additional information about the source (i.e. its type, specific features etc.)

Motion picture

Use “videodisc” for a DVD and “videocassette” for a VHS tape.

List entry: Arthus-Bertrand Y, producer/director. 2009. Home. [videodisc]. Europa Corporation. 1 videodisc: 120 min, sound, color. 4 ¾ in.

In-text: (Arthus-Betrand 2009)

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Government publications

List entry: Council of Economic Advisors. (US). 2017. Economic report of the president [Internet]. Washington, D. C.; [cited 2017 Jan 27]. Available from:

In-text: (Council of Economic Advisors 2017)

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Dissertation/ Thesis

List entry: Abdul-Rahaman M. 2017. Fair pricing of life insurance participating policies with embedded surrender option under stochastic interest rate model [thesis]. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. Available from:

In-text: (Abdul-Rahaman 2017)

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Conference presentation

Cite a conference presentation or paper the same as you would reference a chapter in a book. If it is not published, cite it as follows:

List entry: Lee DJ, Bates D, Dromey C, Xu X, Antani S. 2003. An imaging system correlating lip shapes with tongue contact patterns for speech pathology research. Krol M, Mitra S, Lee DJ, editors. Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems; New York.

In-text: (Lee et al. 2003)

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Published conference proceeding

List entry: Callaos N, Zhang J, Castillo O, Doberkat E, editors. c2003. SCI 2003. Proceedings of the 7th World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics. Orlando, (FL): International Institute of Informatics and Systematics.

In-text: (Callaos et al. 2003)

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List entry: Donovan T, Douglas R, cartographers. 1994. Heart disease in Florida, 1989-1993 [demographic map]. Miami (FL): University of Miami, Scholl of Nursing and Health Studies.

In-text: (Donovan and Douglas 1994)

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Technical reports

List entry: Barman S. 2015. End-User Record and Replay for the Web. Berkeley (CA): University of California, Berkeley. Report No.: UCB/EECS-2015-266.

In-text: (Barman 2015)

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Personal documents (personal communication, e-mails)

List entry: Personal communication/documentation is not included in the reference list but as in-text citation only.

In-text: (J. Smith, e-mail message, January 27, 2017)
(N. Smith, personal communication, January 27, 2017)

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Laboratory report

List entry: Watson L. 2011. Retrieving data from the 2009 Census. SOCI 131 Laboratory Handout. Kamloops (BC): Librarians Department, Thompson Rivers University.

In-text: (Watson 2011)

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List entry: Johnson, J, inventor; 2010 May 25. Screw-less mounted retractable shelves. United States patent US 7,998,550.

In-text: (Johnson 2010)

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Religious text

List entry: Torah. 2013. Chabad.

In-text: (Torah 2013)

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Court case

List entry: People of the State of California v. Orenthal James Simpson. 1995.

In-text: People vs OJ Simpson was a notorious case that involved…… (1995).

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Further study