Velasco Treaty consisted of two documents, which were a secret treaty and a public treaty that were signed in Texas in 1836. The goal of the treaty was to end the hostile relationship between the Republic of Texas and Mexico.


Treaty that was signed in Velasco was the result of the war between Mexico and Texas, which resulted in two treaties with ten articles each. The decisive battle in the Texas War of Independence took place on April 21, 1836 at San Jacinto, a few days after the Texas government was nearly captured by Santa Anne.

Mexican troops stationed in Texas numbered 6,000, but instead of joining forces, Santa Anna preferred to maneuver three separate armies. Under his direct command there were 1250 people, against which Houston was able to expose 800-850 people.

American troops did not enter Texas, but were ready to carry out defensive operations in defense of the lives and property of American citizens on either side of the border line. The trickle of American volunteers joining the rebel army was much thinner than Houston would have liked. However, two guns arrived from Cincinnati that made up the entire artillery fleet of the Texas Army.

Two days before the battle, Sam Houston and Thomas Rusk, who, having understood the situation, fully supported Houston and his chosen tactics and did not take command, issued a joint appeal to the people of Texas.

The self-confidence of the Mexicans, who did not even bother to set the sentries and were taken by surprise during the afternoon rest, became the reason for their complete defeat. The battle lasted 18 minutes, and as Houston said in an address to the people of Texas on the victory, the Mexican side lost 630 people and 570 captured.

Only a few managed to escape, including Santa Anne, but the very next day the Mexican president was captured by the rebels. Houston was in the thick of the battle, during which a horse was killed under him, and he was seriously injured in the leg.

On May 14, 1836, Santa Anna signed a treaty in Velasco, which the Texans interpreted as recognizing Texas’s independence with the Rio Grande borders, which was several times higher than the historic territory of Texas and the really controlled rebel areas. The agreement also provided for the withdrawal of all Mexican troops from Texas territory.

As a result of the defeat from the Texans and their capture, Santa Anna lost power in Mexico. The new Mexican government disavowed the signed agreement, but no serious attempts were made to return Texas in the future. The Texas revolution defeated and Sam Houston, meanwhile, leaving command to Thomas Rask, went for treatment in the United States. The reason was that the wound received at San Jacinto made itself felt.

Treaty of Velasco was signed by Santa Anna, who was held captive. Thus, new Mexican government officials did not recognize the Treaty of Velasco as plausible, which led to nonratification by Mexico. Texas also did not adhere to the Treaty of Velasco because they did not allow Santa Anna to safely go to Veracruz.

In September 1836, the first nationwide presidential election was held in Texas. Stephen Austin, who was at the origins of the first American settlement in Texas, Henry Smith, who headed the provisional government of Texas between the beginning of the revolution and the declaration of independence, and Sam Houston, claimed the highest post in the state.

5119 votes were cast for Houston, 743 for Smith, 587 for Austin. Such an impressive victory was, first of all, recognition of the merits of Houston as a hero of the Texas Revolution, thanks to the military victories of which Texas independence became a reality.