A

As the definition states, it is a method of separating the complex job tasks so that a worker focuses only on one production task or a specific job sector, developing specific skills instead of general ones.

Explanation:

In the past, “holistic” education was the main focus of many learning centers. This approach meant that it focused on every potential of a student, such as emotional, intellectual, creative, or physical ones. The main idea of this movement was to get a person to learn everything and know about everything. However, this idea of a wide range of skills to develop has changed recently.

Today it is more important for an employee to specialize in a particular field or a subfield. Job specialization is a modern trend, and it is also called job simplification, as it requires complex work to be divided into a sequence of less difficult tasks performed by different workers. Now it is the main focus of many companies, but like everything else, this method has both advantages and disadvantages.

One of the main benefits for a worker is that she/he has an opportunity to develop their skills and become an expert. Many companies provide training programs for their employees, which benefits both parties. Having a specialization helps a worker to perform better and easier, which leads to higher productivity. Eventually, these workers become more independent, with no extra guidance or supervision necessary. Also, it is important to note that quality control costs also decrease.

Not only a company benefits from a specialized worker, but also workers themselves as workers with more specialized skills and knowledge are more required. It becomes more difficult to replace a specialist for a company, so the expertise provides job security.

Moreover, due to the higher demand for specialized employees, they receive higher pay as well as they have more personal satisfaction with their job. According to the study of the effect of job specialization on hospital stay, specialization can improve nurses’ satisfaction and prevent burnout.

However, there are several disadvantages of job specialization. Even though in general, it is associated with the growth of economy and the rise of capitalism, it is workers who face the drawbacks of job specialization, not the companies. Some skills become outdated, such as typists who were in demand 50 years ago, but now everyone uses a personal computer. Moreover, the job becomes repetitive, which leads to boredom and loss of interest.

There might be issues of miscommunication and lack of coordination as the team of production might not collaborate with other units. Another disadvantage for a worker is that being focused only on one task prevents her/him from multitasking, which is an important skill that might be necessary for them in the future.

It can also be challenging to find a new job since workers in more widely distributed occupations may find it easier to transfer their skills to a new industry, as The Bureau of Labor Statistics states. The last but not the least is a career development and advancement opportunities which might be restricted for specialized workers.

In conclusion, it is essential to note that the future of job specialization is not crystal clear. The question if the world should be approaching hyperspecialization or not is still relevant. On the one hand, job specialization is a key to improving the economy due to more efficient production; on the other hand, it is not always beneficial for workers. In the end, every person should decide for themselves and choose their path, considering all the pros and cons.