Bosque Redondo memorial commemorates the victims of prosecutions and imprisonments by U.S. Military happening from 1863 to 1868.


When Americans and Mexicans colonized the land of New Mexico, they suffered from raids from Navajo tribes. The Indian tribes fought in order to reclaim their homeland and to collect resources from the colonizers. In efforts to end Navajo wars, The Bear Springs Treaty was signed on November 21, 1846. However, it was not respected by Navajo tribes who continued to harass New Mexican villagers.

In 1849 the U.S. army initiated the expedition into Navajo lands and pillaged their cornfields. The tribe warriors resisted until Chief Narbona came to sign another treaty. However, the peace was broken quickly as a fight broke out between a New Mexican and a Navajo, which quickly led to a massacre. Seven Navajos were fatally shot, including Chief Narbona.

In the 1850s, several campaigns against Navajos were conducted by the U.S. military. On August 30, 1860, 1000 Navajo people attacked the government army in the event that is to be called the Second Battle of Fort Defiance.

This continued up until the early 1860s when colonizers have got access to military force. Only then the American Army tried to deport Navajo and Mescalero Apache tribes from their traditional lands. Called by the Navajos the “Long Walk,” 53 different groups were forced to walk to the eastern reservation in New Mexico without food or shelter. They were constantly chased by slave traders and the U.S. army, experienced acts of cruelty against women, children, and the elderly.

For two years, the Navajo people proceeded to arrive at the land of Bosque Redondo. It ended on June 1, 1868, with the signing of the final treaty, Treaty of Bosque Redondo. To remember this dark moment, a Bosque Redondo memorial was created, so visitors can honor those who have suffered.