The gross domestic private investment is a component of GDP, based on the amount of physical investments within the country.


Gross domestic product, or GDP, contains the most prominent information of the country’s economy. There are several ways to calculate it, and one of them is the expenditure approach. This approach is based on calculating how much was spent in the country, and one of its constituents is the amount of investments, and gross domestic private investment contributes to it. The gross private domestic investment definition, offered by the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, is ‘private fixed investment and change in private inventories’. This definition is reflected in the gross private domestic investment formula:

GPDI = C (non-residential investement) + R (residential investment) + I (change in inventories).

Therefore, gross private domestic investment includes three components. The first one is non-residential investments, which refers to the expenditures of businesses for necessities such as machinery, equipment or materials. The second component is residential investments, implicating the amount spent in the real estate sphere when property is rented to tenants. And the last constituent of the GPDI is the change in private inventories, which includes the goods manufactured but not sold, or those in the process of production, and the materials used to produce them.

The importance of the GPDI is defined by its ability to predetermine the economic potential, indicating future productive capacities. GDP is calculated by way of adding Personal consumption expenditures, gross private domestic investment, government consumption expenditures and net exports. GPDI though is the most unstable one, which makes it vital in determining the economic situation in the country. GDP contributes from 12% to 18% of the GDP, which can be seen from the graph.

Graphing GDP components