The main United States legislature has two types of authority. These include the expressed and implied powers of Сongress.Article I, Section 8, of the U.S. Constitution, provides a list of subjects of exclusive jurisdiction that fall within the expressed powers of the Congress. All other items of authority (residual powers) fall within the jurisdiction of the federative entities, as expressly stated in the Constitution’s amendment X of 1791.


Under Article 1 of the U.S. Constitution, legislative power is vested in a bicameral Congress, whose chambers are elected by direct majority vote. The powers of Congress are listed in Section 8 of Article 1 of the Constitution.

And it should be noted that the text of the Basic Law contains only those powers that states give to the federal center, and this list is exhaustive. That is, all issues that are not within the competence of Congress, the states decide on their own.

Among the powers of Congress, it should be noted the enactment of laws and regulations, the establishment and collection of federal taxes, the establishment of federal courts.

In addition to legislative powers, the Constitution provides for Congress with other functions: control over the executive and judicial power (through the procedure of impeachment), participation in the appointment of senior officials, approval of international treaties, etc.

The federal authorities were assigned preferential rights in the sphere of joint defense and foreign policy, establishment of naturalization rules. The list of social and economic powers of the federal authority and its legislative branch included the right to create a single financial system to regulate foreign and interstate trade.

In reiteration, the 27 expressed powers of the Congress include that the leading powers of the Congress – legislative, financial, control, judicial and foreign policy – with their specific features, in general, do not differ significantly from similar powers of other parliaments, as the U.S. parliament served as a prototype for many of them.