Polytheism is a religious faith system based on the belief in the existence of several gods, each of which has its own sphere of responsibility. Together, the gods of one polytheistic religion form a unique pantheon. Polytheistic religions are opposed to monotheistic worldviews, on the one hand, and atheistic, on the other.


According to the definition, polytheism unites in one world outlook system of various gods who personify a particular part of the visible world or have concrete functions. As a rule, the gods are anthropomorphic, and their behavior and character resemble humans. There is also a hierarchy in the divine pantheon that determines who has more power. The history and purposes of each god are very closely interrelated with polytheistic mythology, which binds them to certain symbols or meanings.

Polytheistic practices imply that people are in close contact with the gods. There are special procedures, such as rituals or sacrifices, designed to enable ordinary people to seek the help of the gods regulating any area of society or nature. In accordance with polytheistic beliefs, any human activity, be it relations, war, politics, or economy, is in contact with a particular god, and the right ritual ensures the success of such activity.

One of the most well-known polytheistic systems in the culture is the pantheon of gods, created by the civilization of ancient Egypt. The mythology of the ancient Egyptian religion contains a vast number of divine characters, with their history and key events, which form a large interconnected system of symbols. Another example is Hinduism, the third most followed religion in the world after Christianity and Islam. This religion was born a few thousand years before our era and is still one of the most voracious and popular on the planet. Also, numerous polytheistic religions were practiced in ancient civilizations across all continents. Such examples are ancient Greek religion, German Scandinavian mythology, Maya religion, and Japanese mythology.