The adoption of the Declaration of Independence stimulated the legislative process in all states. The declaration preamble announced the destruction of the political dependence of the colonies on the king and the British government, proclaiming them free and independent states.

The Bill of Rights
Fig.1 The USA Constitution (1787) and the Bill of Rights (1791).


In July 1776, the preamble of the United States Declaration of Independence, prepared by Thomas Jefferson, was approved at the Third Continental Congress. This issue aims to reveal the details of the Declaration of Independence preamble. From a philosophical point of view, the purpose of the Declaration of Independence was to focus on two topics: personal rights and the rights of the revolution. These ideas received widespread support among Americans and also became known around the world, having a particularly strong influence on the French Revolution.

The United States Constitution, written during the summer of 1787 in Philadelphia, became the fundamental law of the US federal government and an essential document for the entire Western world. The Constitution is the oldest national document, which is valid to this day. It defines the central state bodies and their powers, and fundamental rights of citizens. The first ten constitutional amendments (the Bill of Rights) entered into force on December 15, 1791, limiting the power of the US federal government and protecting the rights of all citizens, residents, and guests in American territory.

It should be noted that the amendments only applied to white male owners. The Declaration says that to ensure natural rights, “people create governments whose fair power is based on the consent of the governed.” This formula completely broke with the theory of the divine origin of the state. According to the Declaration, the state is based on a social contract concluded between people and not between the governed and the governors. During 1776–1784, constitutions were adopted, guaranteeing the rights and freedoms of citizens, the republican form of government, and the principle of separation of powers.

The Confederation of 1781

The Declaration of Independence preamble to the Constitution did not lead to the creation of a single American state. The formation of the United States of America has gone through several stages. In 1781, the independent states united into the Confederation; that is, the union is not so much state as interstate. Besides, “Articles on the Confederation and perpetual union” was adopted.

The countries committed themselves to mutual assistance and non-interference in each other’s affairs. Citizens acquired equal commercial and industrial rights in all states, the power of free entry and exit. A congress was formed to conduct joint affairs, formed from state representatives, each of which had one vote. Freedom of speech and debate in Congress and the inviolability of deputies were envisaged. Decisions were made if nine out of thirteen states spoke in favor.

Congress could solve the issues of war and peace, conclude international treaties, manage the funds provided by the states, resolve conflicts between nations, and manage the trade with the Indian tribes. Congress had practically no authority to settle domestic political issues. Although it could set monetary standards, money emission was carried out by each state independently. There was no overall tax system; Confederation funding came from state funds.

Between the sessions of Congress, the State Committee operated, including one representative from each state. Each state retained its independence, the right to maintain its army and navy, receive and appoint ambassadors, conclude treaties and agreements, and even conduct military operations. Thus, some details of the signing of the Declaration of Independence have been disclosed, which indicates the importance of creating and combining the accompanying documents and entities listed above.