In sociology, there are two cultural aspects, the material and the non-material, which are linked to each other. Material cultural objects are linked by the idea of non-material culture.


Material culture refers to the physical things, spaces and resources that people use to educate their own kind of culture, family or society. Such objects are churches, temples, houses, schools, universities, technology, goods, furniture and so on. All these material objects of culture help to understand and identify social behavior and how they perceive the world around them. In America, for example, students need to be able to use computer technology in order to find a job and live. While in Amazonia there are tribes that need to be able to make weapons in order to survive and hunt. Non-material culture refers to the spiritual, moral and emotional aspects of human life. These include: religion, rules, traditions, values, norms, upbringing, language and so on. For example, traditions in non-material culture are a set of activities and things that have been passed on from generation to generation over several years. These traditions, in this way, show and define how society and culture develop and respond to different traditions of different peoples and families.

In considering non-material culture, sociologists rely on 4 main processes: values, language, norms and symbols. These processes are used in society to develop the behavior, emotions and thoughts of each person.

Non-material culture is closely interconnected with material culture, for example, in religion people worship the idea and belief in God, but in some religions as Islam and Christianity there is the Koran and the Bible. The Koran and the Bible are material aspects of non-material culture, thus connecting one with another. Perhaps, without these books, these two religions would not have formed. Non-material culture may also include omens and myths that were once passed down to the modern generation from their grandparents or great grandparents.