A

Book is related to chapter as organization is related to department. The type of correlation between these pairs of words is that book, as well as organization, are aimed to define bigger entities, which consist of smaller parts, such as chapters of a book and departments of an organization.

Explanation:

Within the context of comparing a book to an organization, the words ‘chapter’ and ‘department’ are the most similar in meaning. The word ‘department’, from this perspective, is different from the others due to its hierarchical relation to organization, and thus fits best to the comparison.

Each chapter of a book has a definite role and makes its respective contribution to the meaning of the whole book. In other words, the division of a book into chapters allows for delegating specific purposes to each of them, at the same time developing the general plot of the story.

In a similar way, different departments in organizational structure have their own tasks and goals within a bigger entity, which is a company. Structurally, an organization might have such departments as marketing, finances, human resources, information technologies, and others. Each segment makes its respective contribution to the development of a company, thus playing a significant role in the achievement of the organization’s goals.

Finally, employees work in particular departments depending on the sphere of their expertise in the same way as characters in different chapters perform under different circumstances.

Such an approach of structuring complex phenomena enables a clear distribution of tasks. Therefore, the scope of responsibility of those performing within a definite department is easier to be defined, which ultimately contributes to the successful organizational supervision.