Overview of practices in adult ESL instruction

Language teaching has emerged as an independent professional discipline in recent times with unique concept methods that outline a systematic teaching methodology for acquisition of language theories and practices. Language learning constitutes the concept of applied linguistics with relevant formulation and methodologies.

Methods applied in language teaching exemplify techniques and practices that can be interpreted by adult learners in various ways in the same classroom (Smith, 2007). Adult foreign English language learners are different from other adults who are native English speakers. They include immigrants and asylum seekers with different cognitive capacities and intelligence.

The composition of adult learners is complex and diverse as immigration patterns keep changing. People from different regions of the world such as Africa and Asia among others migrating into Europe seek to develop their literacy skills in English as adults.

The process of learning English as a second language among adults demands for the use of best practices in teaching as well as giving instruction. Curriculum development should factor in the interests and capabilities of the adult students from different regions of the world (Berlin, 2005). The content of the subject should equally reflect best practices and approaches in language teaching in a complex environment.

Differentiated instruction

Differentiated instruction is a flexible approach in learning that takes into account the different abilities of students in teaching. Students are therefore exposed to various means of synthesizing ideas and knowledge. This is a teaching method that incorporates various instructions techniques which equally apply to different students in the same classroom.

The method of differentiated instruction calls for teachers to be flexible in terms of adjusting the curriculum content and teaching methodology in line with the expectations and capacities of their students (Purmensky, 2009).

It is therefore an efficient method of teaching adult students from different backgrounds without a bias on a rigid curriculum. Students are able to excel in acquiring language skills through a flexible approach that is associated with their goals and expectations.

Differentiated instruction removes barriers to learning where teachers and students are equally engaged in the education process. Students’ access to materials and curriculum content is further enhanced through this method of teaching in various classrooms.

Differentiated instruction actually involves the appreciation of students’ needs, background, language and interests in developing a flexible teaching method which incorporates the variations in learning potentialities of the individual students (Nevin, Villa & Thousand, 2007). The student’s academic background and proficiency in learning the language determines the teaching preferences adapted by the instructor.

Differentiated instruction appreciates the learner’s abilities in language teaching in order to align the teaching methodology with the interests of the student. The method therefore identifies the actual position of the student in language acquisition and assists individually the learning of new concepts.

The student learning profile illustrates his/her readiness to study, potential to learn new skills and ability to develop talent. The teaching curriculum which entails the content and standards used to benchmark the teaching process if therefore aligned to the student learning profile for the purpose of helping the learner excel at individual level.

What the instructor does during teaching is dependent on both the curriculum and the student’s profile and how integrated they are. The differentiated instruction helps in planning the teaching module for individual and group categories of the same class.

The process of differentiating instruction requires that the content of the curriculum is deconstructed to create a procedure that appreciates the student profile in processing the final product in learning (Sanz, 2005).

Content

The content of the instruction consists of concepts, principles and skills which support the learning process. It is important that students are accessible to the guidelines and materials of the language curriculum which acts as a gauge for exploring and explaining the learning process.

Goals and objectives of the learning process are then set. Differentiated instruction actually seeks to align the learning objectives with different tasks in the classroom in a defined manner. The learning goals are benchmarked on standardized tests in an incremental manner towards a higher state of skills acquisition (Smoke, 2008).

According to Smoke (2008) differentiated instruction content is therefore an objectives-driven procedure that effectively outlines a stepwise approach in teaching language. The degree of complexity in the curriculum content is differentiated to suit the variation in learning potential. The concepts and principles are taught using an instruction model that identifies defined steps and matches goals to content.

Process

Differentiated instruction seeks to help the individual student through a process that recognizes the input of flexible grouping in learning.

The strategies of grouping students with different learning abilities focus on teamwork and mutual interaction in teaching various language concepts (Kompf & Denicolo, 2005). Students help each other to learn new content during their group interactions.

Teachers actually introduce the entire class to the topics of study and for group discussions in advance. Tasks are then assigned to individual students and groups in the same class for exercise.

The topic under study defines the composition and structure of the group. Students are allowed to join any groups while the teacher provides insight and oversight in the learning process.

Regular evaluations of the group performance are carried out with respect to the learning objectives for the purpose of adjusting the content with learners’ abilities. Designing the classroom for differentiated instruction exercises is a crucial element in teaching language. Management of the classroom activities rests upon the teacher’s discretion.

Products

Pre-assessment ad subsequent regular assessments of the student learning profile are important in determining the effectiveness of the learning process. The initial pre-assessment assists the teacher to gauge the student readiness to participate in the learning process.

These assessments provide insight into the different ways teaching could be done taking into account the variation in student abilities and interests (Edelsky, 2006).

Assessment can be done through interviews and surveys in addition to academic evaluation strategies which recognize individual student potentialities and interests. Teachers expect that their students shall be active and responsible during the learning program engaging one another in discussions.

The content of the curriculum should elicit learning consciousness in the mind of the student provoking healthy exchange of ideas and information. Such interested and active students should be facilitated to access materials for language acquisition and understanding the necessary skills at individual and group level.

The time spent in learning should be properly evaluated for the success of the outcomes with respect to the different approaches. The feedback received from students in relation to differentiated topics of study.

The variation in student understanding of the concepts is noted and the differentiated content is thereby evaluated (Hedgcock & Ferris, 2005). Measurement of student scores and outcomes to the different learning methods is a factor of the varied demonstration of knowledge acquisition and responses from diverse students sharing the same classroom.

Towards differentiated instruction in language teaching

The teacher is expected to clarify to the class about the general principles and concepts which constitute the curriculum. Learners should be helped to assimilate the details of the curriculum as well as develop the necessary knowledge base for subsequent discussions and evaluation (Nelson & Price, 2009).

Since learners have differences in skills and abilities, the teacher adapts differentiated instruction to ensure that essential concepts and principles are understood by the whole class. This enables the classroom to be balanced before group activities and deliberations are launched.

A stepwise technique is utilized in teaching accompanied with periodic assessment tools which serve to guide the students towards achieving learning objectives. The assessment is done before and during the learning process in alignment with the student profile and curriculum expectations.

Classroom lessons are designed in a manner to emphasize creativity and innovation in learning. The tasks and activities assigned to students should foster practical application of content rather assimilation of knowledge. Students are therefore expected to be active in applying meaning to the varied tasks while the teacher inspires and supports constructive thinking and dialogue.

The teacher should ensure that all students are properly engaged in the learning process. Lessons should be designed in a manner to reflect student differences in the classroom activities (Kasper, 2000).

Materials and equipment that facilitate learning should be available and accessible to every student. No drilling of students should be applied during teaching but the entire classroom session should consist of tasks and activities which are both motivating and inclusive.

Differentiated instruction creates balance between the teacher assignments and students’ interdisciplinary preferences. This balanced working structure creates the foundation for the application of differentiated learning methodologies and evaluation of the outcomes mutually.

The student profile and the teacher lesson design are flexible to the variations in the classes. In essence, students are given options in learning which towards mutual interactions and exchange of ideas (Kazemek, 2009).

Differentiated instruction effectiveness

Empirical validation of the independent student learning profiles in differentiated instruction during language teaching is evaluated based on the concept of “readiness” of the student. The complexity of the learning curriculum is differentiated depending on the variation in the mastery levels of the individual students.

Teachers use the curriculum content selectively through approaches that recognize the learning profiles of the class and the extent to which educational objectives are realized.

The range of instructions employed in teaching corresponds to the dynamic challenges in the modern classroom where students from diverse nationalities and literacy levels are engaged in constructive dialogue and interaction that promote sustainability in learning (Ryan & Krueger, 2009).

Project-based learning

Adult students participating in a project that interests them promotes teamwork in learning. The learners identify a common project and develop appropriate responses to the subject matter. Project-based learning greatly facilitates adult literacy initiatives from a common perspective through inquiries that enhance progressive education (Miller & Beckett, 2006).

The functional context through which project-based learning is carried out adopts the K-12 approaching teaching and participatory education in adult learning. This is particularly important in second language acquisition among adult learners with differentiated potentialities and interests. Projects are indentified from different fields but should correspond to the mutual interests of the adult team.

The role of the teacher involves the task of introducing the idea of the project to be studied to the class in order to weigh their level of understanding among the students. The teacher also describes the different phases that the project should be explored without unnecessary emphasis on the rules of engagement.

In essence, adult students are at liberty to select a project that interests them within the confines of the curriculum through established learning phases. The project phases consist of the initial “identification of the relevant project issue, reconnaissance surveys, planning, assigning of roles, research, and implementation and finally developing and evaluating the product” (Wesche, Snow & Brinton, 2008).

Project based learning applies knowledge in meaning contexts for the purpose of collaborative learning and individual student growth. The emphasis is placed on the benefits of group learning rather than cognitive development in language education.

Teachers monitor student activities during project development in order to align them with classroom expectations. Project-based learning and progressive education are connected through common approaches to knowledge acquisition and social interactions.

Project-based learning enables adult students to identify individual cognitive challenges with respect to the degree to which concepts are acquired and applied. The curriculum content is understood based on constructive dialogue and meaningful interactions between teachers and likeminded students (Reis & Renzulli, 2007). The group identifies a common problem, develops remedies and evaluates progress of the proposed solutions.

Group interaction and deliberations provides the basis for problem solving and cognitive development. Project based learning facilitates joint decision making and problem solving opportunities through concerted knowledge acquisition and cognitive development.

Curriculum content is studied through the social context of the learners’ group as exemplified through individual reflection and teamwork. Literacy is developed through a social context that corresponds to the content of the curriculum. Adult learners develop their literacy and language proficiency through project identification and implementation.

Knowledge and ideas are actualized through community projects which apply to the curriculum content (Belzer, 2007). Adults with variation in literacy levels are privileged to respond to appropriate community issues within the scope of the language curriculum in a concerted manner.

Variety

Projects identified for learning and community service emphasize personal development and self-actualization through relevant group activity. Projects encourage development of learners’ cognitive capacities apart from processing learning outcomes and products that benefit the entire society.

The project directs the learning process through a criterion that allows students to give feedback to community issues that interest them while applying content of the curriculum in knowledge development. The functional context of project based learning is based on students’ capacities and community issues (Fleener, Morgan & Richardson, 2008).

Benefits and skills gain

Teachers create themes for development of project-based learning while students identify common interests for constructive dialogue. Since students are involved in identifying common projects for learning, they are motivated towards developing the best practices in second language acquisition (Shanahan & August, 2007).

Learners are actively engaged in the inquiry process during project-based learning. Learners are equally inspired to propose solutions to challenges and problems they are involved in. They also develop a common professional ethic in carrying out tasks and duties. Group interaction and socialization enables learners to encourage one another towards resolving community problems and tasks.

The social context of group learning facilitates mutual interactions that inspire moral support and enhancement of communication skills. Learning outcomes are presented in a scheduled manner promoting a timeline perspective in achieving learning objectives. Adults are therefore facilitated to develop their academic skills towards second language acquisition through sufficient teacher-student integrated support.

The excitement of developing the learning curriculum through practical project learning initiatives inspires innovation among students. Adult learners are involved in competency tests that measure their academic performance towards standardized language proficiency parameters (Appel & Lantolf, 2004). Language and literacy becomes integrated through practical learning approaches within a defined social context.

Project-based learning offers multiple learning options to students with a variety in needs and talents. Group interaction promotes socialization and teamwork in learning. The project agenda is the lowest common denominator in second language acquisition through its practical application of concepts.

Individual students are therefore motivated to develop their learning abilities through dialogue and writing projects that align with their second language acquisition initiatives. Engagement and involvement in common team activities promotes skills development on literacy and language portfolios (Matsuda & Silva, 2001).

Challenges are practically discussed and implemented through procedures that correspond to the curriculum content. To this end, learners benefit from project-based learning through community service and self reflection. Learning outcomes are evaluated first on the group objectives followed by individual development of learning skills.

Individualized Group Instruction

Second language acquisition among adult students is measured against individual achievement of assigned tasks. Teacher instructions are designed on student to student basis in language teaching. This is in appreciation with student differences in learning a second language.

The teacher is the reference point in teaching since he/she guides each student based on assigned tasks. Individual performance is used in the subsequent coaching and revision between the teacher and the student (Nunan & Richards, 2000).

The teacher is therefore in a position to identify the problems of individual students for further assistance. This model of teaching is more thorough and involving taking into account the complexity of the curriculum and the classroom. Students are therefore in a better position to gain first hand from the professional experience of their instructors towards solving their individual problems.

The curriculum is taught to the whole class but emphasis is put on the individual student’s outcomes. The teacher assigns the class tasks but evaluates student performance at individual level. This narrows teaching to individual students while it promotes talent and knowledge acquisition in a specific manner.

This methodology helps adult learners to express their individual problems directly to their instructors without fear of reprisals and peer embarrassment. The burden of second language acquisition is shared between the teacher and the student through approaches that best fit to the individual student (Doyle, McDonald & Leberman, 2006).

The teacher is able to assess the performance of each student based on the degree of acquisition of basic skills in the second language such as grammar and pronunciation. Individual problems are highlighted for correction and evaluation based on the content of the curriculum. The performance of the whole class is an aggregate of the individual outcomes.

The teacher inspires excellence through approaches that recognize individual effort and prowess on completion of assigned tasks. The best performance is publicly recognized, approved and rewarded in order to inspire hard work in the class. Exchange of ideas is facilitated by the teacher who monitors the contribution of individual students on a shared topic.

This helps in developing the individual personalities of the learner within the group. The class provides the social context through individual potential is recognized and rewarded based on a common curriculum.

The performance of the class is a product of the cumulative individual efforts on various tasks assigned by the teacher based on the content of the teaching curricula (Nasta, Griffin & Gray, 2000). The performance individual performance is evaluated against the aggregate outcome of the class.

Collaborating with Students to Build Curriculum that Incorporates Real-Life Materials

The teacher and the student are engaged in curriculum development with a bias on the needs assessment of the student in the context of the general society. There is sustained collaboration between the student and teacher in designing the lessons and the content of the curriculum.

The content of second language acquisition curriculum reflects learners’ needs rather than a purely academic module. The variation in learner’s abilities and literacy levels is factored in an integrated module that equally matches with standardized education scores (Brockett & Merriam, 2007).

The teacher explains the expectations of the education curriculum and the standardized tests that correspond to second language acquisition among adult learners.

Adult learners respond by giving feedback on their understanding of the underlying concepts and principles. The teacher takes note of the different responses in modifying the content of the curriculum with students needs. This ensures that learners’ needs do not contradict with the standard curriculum expectations.

Collaborating between students and teachers facilitates the learning with process by reflecting on curriculum content in a practical manner (Smith, 2007). Quality teaching is therefore achieved through a procedure that allows for feedback from students on the subject matter.

Teaching entails approaches and techniques which are practical in nature. Second language acquisition is taught through such literary styles as narratives, poetry and drama in explain the content to students.

The dramatized ideas reflect the problems and issues of interest in the society. Expression of these issues through such literary styles facilitates acquisition of language skills in a practical manner.

The curriculum is designed in a manner to actively engage learners on current issues in the society while teacher serve as the reference resource on the content and concepts taught in class.

Student needs are continuously assessed before and during learning in terms of the different abilities and potentialities of the learners (Berlin, 2005). The relevance of the teaching method is evaluated based on application of the curriculum content the different needs of learners.

Content based Instruction

Teaching materials are content based and learner-centered. The curriculum serves as the yardstick in evaluating relevant teaching approaches that best apply with learners’ needs in different contexts. Learners come from different backgrounds and vary in terms of abilities and literacy levels.

However, second language acquisition follows a paradigm that recognizes learners’ potential to synthesize ideas, concepts and principles in the curriculum. Based on the needs assessment of the adult class, the content is taught through instructions that correspond to learners’ ability (Purmensky, 2009).

Materials and equipment used as teaching aids in language teaching do not just disseminate the content to learners but also address the needs of the students. Students are therefore taught the principles and concepts which apply to the second language acquisition in order to lay the foundation for subsequent discussions on the application of the knowledge.

The content of the curriculum is the reference while designing teaching approaches while outcomes are investigated based on the relevance of the teaching instruction with respect to the student needs. Matching of the learners’ literacy status with the curriculum content informs the methodologies applied in teaching adults a second language.

Adult learners from diverse nationalities but studying the same second language may not interact properly in groups due to the complex nature of their native languages. The content of the curriculum should therefore identify similarities and differences that exist in the same class while designing the teaching methodology for second language acquisition.

Students from countries that speak the same language can be grouped together during lessons in order to create appropriate working student clusters in a class where nationalities of the students are extensively varied (Nevin, Villa & Thousand, 2007).

Similar tasks could be assigned to the different groups while evaluating the degree of compliance to established standards. Periodic evaluation of the group and individual outcomes with respect to the subject matter provides the impetus for subsequent teaching.

National Center for the Study of Adult Learning

Adult learning requires a close teacher-student relationship. Adult students are people with practical experiences from different disciplines and life. The task of teaching adult students a second language requires that they are actively engaged in the learning process.

The focus should be placed on development of relevant skills which include reading, writing, research and verbal communication. Reading and writing lessons can be carried out together while research and speaking skills can be taught through projects assigned to individual learners.

Students need to be guided on how to carry out extensive research without distorting the curriculum content. The expectation of adult learning is to help the students develop their literacy skills without too much burden on their schedule (Sanz, 2005). Group interactions are equally fruitful in the sense that they inspire group learning through exchange of ideas.

Brainstorming sessions characterize such group activities each having a common agenda. The curriculum is deconstructed through group activities that engage adult learners in practical means of understanding concepts.

Theoretical principles are taught through methodologies that demystify knowledge and promote assimilation and practical application of information. The teacher attaches ratings to the different techniques used in learning from dialogue, discussions to creative thinking and practical reading of passages.

Understanding the vocabulary, note taking and essay writing illustrates progress and the teacher assigns a high rating for the score (Smoke, 2008). Presentation, research and interviewing skills are also developed through group activities assigned common topics for study.

Participatory education is therefore part and parcel of the adult learning process with proper facilitation from the teacher and the active involvement of the learner.

The outcome of such group interactions is the enhanced student motivation and self esteem while promoting team building for purposes of developing working relationships. Adult learners from diverse nationalities are mutually engaged in brainstorming and group sessions which serves to develop cross-cultural integration.

Language and culture are closely integrated since they mutually promote the wellbeing of the society. “Collaborative working relationships between the teacher as the curriculum instructor and students from diverse nationalities promote skills development in second language acquisition” (Kompf & Denicolo, 2005).

Adult learning proceeds beyond the classroom through an approach that incorporates real life experiences and participatory education in training and project development. The teacher encourages team building and participation in group activities that transform theoretical concepts through the experiential mode into practical initiatives.

Hard skills taught in second language acquisition include reading and writing while soft skills include dialogue and presentation skills. Adult education is based on the understanding that some adults have limited literacy and language acquisition skills.

Theory of experiential learning

Learning in general seeks to enlarge the knowledge base of information. This requires that the information is stored for future reference or otherwise memorized (Edelsky, 2006). The skills and facts acquired during the learning process should empower learners in solving their daily problems through applying them appropriately.

Individuals have a natural ability to learn from their experiences. It therefore explores a method of obtaining information by learning from experiences. The knowledge is then acquired and transformed to solve problems that individuals have as well as the environmental concerns. Experiential learning is a continuous process that incorporates the experience with theory, reflection as well as solutions.

Experiential learning is based on the principle that individuals learn better from their personal experiences. People’s actions in this theory are more important than what they have been taught. It therefore employs a learning process that is self fulfilling and enjoyable in order for the learners to face the challenges appropriately. It also empowers the individuals with the ability to become creative and innovative.

The theory of experiential learning therefore based on firsthand experience and observation. Reflection in experiential learning is very critical. I t provides the link between the real life experiences and theoretical concepts. Participants in the learning process are given an opportunity to interact with each other with an aim of learning from one another (Hedgcock & Ferris, 2005).

An individual is also expected to evaluate his progress within the team with a view of developing oneself at the end. This is particularly useful in adult learning since it equips them with the potential to comprehend ideas easily. This is due to the fact that most adults are engaged in several activities at the same time.

As a result they require such group activities to inspire their learning process with maximum output out of each session. This is also because the adults are able to interact with the learning phenomenon firsthand from familiar experiences that could guide their reflection.

Both the content of the learning process and the relevant experience that is applicable to the learner are explored. The immediate personal experience provides the foundation for learning because it provides a familiar relationship with the theoretical concepts being discussed (Nelson & Price, 2009).

Any new ideas being discussed can therefore be verified against these known experiences for their validity. The experiences can also be understood better through a conscious reflection.

Experiential learning is typically a continuous process that combines past tangible experiences through reflection to academic theories in order to forecast current and future events (Kasper, 2000). This may include the process of learning about wild animals within a game reserve rather than reading some literature describing about them.

No teacher is involved but the learner gains knowledge by interacting with the environment directly thereby being able to make personal discoveries without looking at others’ experiences. In order for the learner to benefit from this kind of exposure education, he/she should be able to participate proactively in the experience.

Another basic component entails the learner’s potential to reflect on each and every detail of the experience. In order to comprehend the experience fully, the learner should possess critical investigative skills in order to probe the issues being experienced. Then the learner needs to have the skills to deal with difficult scenarios as well as making wise choices.

This is very useful in empowering the learner with the potential to exploit the experiences involved in real life situation. This becomes even more essential to the adult learner who finds these experiences a viable resource material for reference when solving daily problems as well as making life decisions(Kazemek, 2009).

However, these experiences can be fully utilized if they are understood within the context of formal learning otherwise general experiences may end up being applied wrongly.

For instance in experiential learning students may develop a wrong attitude towards mathematics and even resolve not to attend lectures which in formal learning define the students’ results in exams. Therefore experiential learning on its own may lead to generalizations, stereotypes and prejudice when learners make conclusions from their experiences (Ryan & Krueger, 2009).

On the hand, experiential learning becomes very useful in helping individuals educate themselves about their best way to meet personal requirements, wishes and needs through direct experience. Individuals participating in this kind of learning should possess personal initiative and regular evaluation of their experiences in order to effectively engage in the process.

The process requires that learners at the inset set their goals and objectives which are meant to guide them in evaluating their experiences. Evaluation entails making relevant observations, reflection and the ultimate decision making.

There is also a component of enjoyment in experiential learning characterized by sports and games. The serves to keep the lessons obtained in the learning process for a good period of time. The social forums created by the sports encourage team work, communication and leadership.

When learners are personally involved in the experiential learning process, they are able to appreciate their talents and gifts within a communal and enjoyable setting (Miller & Beckett, 2006). As a result, those facilitating the experiential learning should be quite outgoing in terms of engaging the learners in process fully.

This demands that the facilitator provides leadership by active participation as well as encouraging the team members to exploit the environment to the maximum. They should brainstorm the minds of their colleagues to think in tandem to the set goals and objectives.

Emphasis is therefore put on an individual’s personal growth and development through adventure in the target environment. The approach seeks to empower the personal intellectual, emotional, physical and spiritual wellbeing (Wesche, Snow & Brinton, 2008).

The individual’s senses are put to practice in the learning process engaging the brain, the eyes, the heart, the tongue and the hands. This means that the whole being of a person is engaged in a holistic learning process. Individuals then interact with each other building relationships and fostering character development and individuality.

This form of learning is particularly effective in adult learning. The adults have basically gained experience in the immediate past which is relevant in experiential learning process when dealing with present challenges. Tangible experience is related to theoretical concepts through reflection and dynamic trials.

The adult learners utilize their immediate experiences through keen observation and reflective thinking to draw relevant concepts about the past events in their determination of future plans (Reis & Renzulli, 2007). The four stages are integrated processes that follow each other in the experiential adult learning process.

Learners are constantly involved in establishing personal experiences that are related to the current environment being evaluated within a social cultural setup. This properly defines the best perspective to engage in lifelong learning process.

It provides a forum for the adults to develop the society through their personal experiences in view of the current challenges. Experiential learning also provides an opportunity to develop the adults’ careers after their formal learning in schools. Their work experience is particularly important when seeking for promotions at their workplace and leadership in the society as an opportunity to further their careers.

The process of experiential learning therefore develops a person’s overall outlook and social relevance. This mode of learning is actually important in determining the sequence of events in a particular situation especially when discussing possibilities of solving a problem.

From this pattern of events, a general defining principle can be established to explain the situation (Belzer, 2007). The actions that characterize the response to the situation and several other related events provide the underlying principle. When a similar situation arises or some other related scenario, this principle is applied in defining the steps which can be exploited to solve them within that context.

This is an important form of learning to adults especially those in management positions. This is because they are able to make wise judgments by carrying out a critical reflection on issues based on previous experiences in management.

The adults are able to anticipate future outcomes by connecting similar actions that occurred in their past experiences at work or in social forums. Despite of this noble learning process, the generalization of issues may lead to erroneous conclusions which could damage the credibility and integrity of particular blanket decision making procedures (Fleener, Morgan, Richardson, 2008).

Above all, learners in adult education have their own strengths and weaknesses which they are familiar with. This when coupled to their own experiences which they are easy for them to apply, forms a comfortable learning atmosphere to gain personal knowledge.

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