Introduction: Power of Persuasion and its Role in Negotiation
A success of negotiation is fully dependent upon the persuasion skills of the communicants. Persuasion helps people to address multiple issues and challenges, to attract attention as well as to arrive at mutually consistent and correct decisions. It is crucial to realize that persuasion does not imply an intentional manipulation, it rather represents the art of solving contradictory disputes and establishing contacts with other people.
Critical Steps for Effective Persuasion
Effective persuasion is stipulated by a wide range of factors. Thus, a person who is willing to master the major persuasion skills must take certain steps so that to achieve success. According to DeMarr and De Janasz (2012), an efficient persuader has to possess the ability to read people, for it helps to identify personal motivations and needs. Besides, it is important to establish credibility through the revelation of expertise and proficiency (p. 180).
In his article, Graham Smith (2014) outlines six crucial steps that are to be taken by a negotiator. Due to the author, the steps are reciprocity, authority, scarcity, liking, consistency and consensus. Each step has its defining pattern and can replicate the particular life acts. For instance, reciprocity roots at mutual collaboration, which shows that a negotiator always owes something. It resembles a process of sending a birthday card to a friend, since the act implies an importance to return a similar present in future. Liking as a critical step may be compared to a desire to buy an attractive thing. Just as no girl can resist purchasing a nice dress, no communicator who is impressed by a successful persuader can refuse him/her. Consensus represents a step that is similar to following a fashionable trend.
Thus, it is crucial for an effective negotiator to demonstrate the views that are popular in a particular sphere, since people tend to make safe decisions and to follow the generally-accepted behavioral patterns. A revelation of scarcity and authority is crucial for a successive persuader as well, for it demonstrates personal credibility and ability to manage both human resources and time. Finally, consistency shows a negotiator’s commitment and proves that a person is able to carry out promises.
Reardon’s Ace Theory and Persuasion Effectiveness
One of the most efficient persuasion analyzers is Reardon’s Ace Theory, since it provides an opportunity to determine whether a negotiator reaches success or not. The theory is based upon the unity of appropriateness, consistency and effectiveness. In their book, DeMarr and De Janasz (2012) argue that “by utilizing these criteria as you plan your persuasion approach, you can increase the likelihood of achieving the desired outcome” (p. 185). Therefore, a successful appliance of Reardon’s Ace Theory in negotiation stipulates effective results. Each criterion refers to a certain dimension of persuasion efficiency. Due to Komiak (2013), appropriateness verifies particular decisions against accepted standards and norms. Consistency is a criterion that shows whether a particular idea or offer complies with a person’s preferences and previous experiences. The last factor reveals the possible outcomes of a certain communication act (p. 432).
The Ace theory may be successfully used by business managers and administrators. Thus, it is crucial for any leader to evaluate the way in which he/she can make the most beneficial and correct business decision. For instance, the persuasion model may be tested by managers who need to purchase some knew supplies or materials. In this situation, they face a number of offers and alternatives and it is crucial for them to make a right choice. Therefore, a manager may consider a verification of supplies’ characteristics against such criteria as appropriateness, consistency and prospective effectiveness within a certain business sphere.
The Foundation of Successful Negotiation
Types, Formats and Styles of Negotiation
Every persuasion act can end up either in agreement or disagreement. The process of several communicants trying to arrive at a common solution is called negotiation. One can differentiate a wide range of contrastive negotiation types that are determined by the general communication aims. Therefore, it is possible to outline contract negotiations, salary agreements, purchase discussions, settlement negotiations etc.
A number of negotiation styles and formats, in contrast, can be subdivided into concrete categories. Thus, there are only two major formats in which different types of negotiation can take place. These are principled negotiation and positional bargaining. While the first format is based upon a mutual collaboration, the second one is rooted at two extreme positions that are taken by the parties. Consequently, in positional bargaining, the communicators always concentrate upon winning a negotiation and arriving at the solution that complies with one’s own interests and desires. Principled negotiation, in opposite, implies working together and making the most beneficial choices that coincide with the interests of both communicants. Therefore, the latter negotiation format is preferred by the effective persuaders, since it promotes favorable negotiation outcomes (Long, 2013).
Apart from negotiation types and formats, one can emphasize certain styles of negotiation. The five major styles are collaborating, compromising, competing, accommodating and avoiding. The styles establish the modes of communication and produce certain impacts upon the outcomes of negotiation. The most adversarial style is a competing one, since it is based upon aggressive strategic association between two communicants who mind only their own interests. In contrast to it, a compromising style of negotiation appears to be the most beneficial, since it promotes peaceful and constructive solutions.
Due to a multifaceted nature of communication procedures, there is no universal classification that can embrace all the possible forms of negotiation. However, some experts make attempts to outline the most general types. According to Anna Mar (2013), the typical forms are the following: win-lose win-win, lose-lose, multi-party, collaborative, adversarial and bad faith negotiations (para. 1). Each type of negotiation is based upon a certain model of relationships between two parties. In general, if the communicants maintain friendly and relaxed negotiation, the outcome of their association is likely to be favorable.
The effective relations between the parties are the most critical in adversarial, multi-party and win-lose negotiations. All these types are based upon a diversity of opinions and ideas. Thus, if the communicants do not collaborate efficiently, the negotiations are meaningless. In my daily associations, I prefer multi-party negotiation, for I consider that such communication form is the most objective one and can be applied in any contradictory dispute if it is conducted on collaborative terms.
Conflict Management Strategy
According to the reviewed principles of effective negotiation, it is possible to create a conflict management strategy that can contribute to a success of any negotiation act. Such strategy is based upon a multi-party type of negotiation that takes place in principled format and is conducted on collaborating terms. The strategy implies a deliberate participation of the third party, which ensures an objectiveness of the outcomes. Moreover, a collaborative mode of communication promotes effective conflict management. Thus, the strategy can be successfully used by a good persuader who engages in multidimensional negotiations.
Conclusion: Significance of Key Persuasion Techniques in Negotiation
An effective persuasion technique is a key to successful negotiation outcomes. The strengths of negotiations depend upon a wide range of factors such as relationships mode, complexity of the disputes, particular settings and so on. The knowledge about negotiation styles and formats creates a foundation for an efficient negotiation. Besides, it is crucial for any negotiator to be knowledgeable about the conflict management techniques as well as negotiation strategies so that to conduct successful communications.
DeMarr, B., & De Janasz, S. (2012). Negotiation and dispute resolution. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall. Web.
Long, J. (2013). Effective negotiation strategies and preparation. Web.
Mar, A. (2013). 7 Types of negotiation and 1 big myth. Web.
Smith, G. (2014. The power of persuasion – 6 steps to influencing. SciSales. Web.
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