With the development of civilization, one of the more important concerns that are fast becoming a major threat is pollution and no form of pollution seemed to be bigger than that of fresh water pollution. Thus, the focal point of this dissertation is based on the factors and affects of the fresh water pollution.

Within this given parameter emphasis would be given on the effects of water pollution have differ from the past to the present. In terms of the water Pollution, conditioning it would be analyzed whether it has declined or improved over the past few years and if so the degree would be determined. Furthermore, it would be enumerated the amount of the damages that have been caused from water pollution.

The paper would loosely be based on human health, but would focus on the water pollution in the ecosystem from underground, rivers, and lakes and would enumerate how the pollution is affecting the water life and wild life in general. Alongside there would be a brief discussion on the water cycle and humans. (Birnie, 1995)

In general, the matter of water supply is of prime concern and an imperative and intricate issue. However, it could be ascertained that the matter of fresh water pollution could be broadly divided under two vital aspects.

The first and foremost characteristic is to identify the point sources that are readily identifiable like that of the pipe discharge, sewage, industrial effluent and other such sources which are comparatively easily addressed and therefore could be regulated and monitored after being located. The second is the non-point sources, which are difficult to identify.

This includes motor oil splashes due to storm runoff or other oil sources that sums up to a significant amount. Additionally there are the problems of silting from logging, farming, constructions, and this cause huge water pollution specifically when ground water is concerned.

The contamination of ground or surface water creates a huge ecological imbalance along with substantial affect on human public health and it covers a vast area of water resources like estuaries, wetlands, rivers, and lakes. (Sands, 2004)

It was found from a research in 1985 that the average fresh water level has decreased at an alarming rate. Soon it was investigated and the prime reason behind this was that the genital size of male marsh crocodiles has decreased dramatically making them unable to copulate in a proper manner. The sole cause behind this scenario was the presence of pollutants in the marsh water.

During the same period, the population level of the fish eagle was found to be decreasing too. Specifically, it was found to be disturbing at the region on the vicinity of the river San Lorenzo.

The direct affect of the pollution in the river affected the aquatic lives and that in turn affected the eagles by eliminating the male gender from the population stock. Researchers found pairs of female eagles trying to build nests, as there were no males around. (Newell, 2001)

This is how the water pollution can cause a complete ecological imbalance creating havoc in the environment of the wild and aquatic life forms. Had it not for environment friendly activist organizations like Environmental Protection and Information Centre and Centre for Biological Diversity water pollution level would have become much worse by now and most of the species would have been lost.

However, with the implementation and enactment of the Clean Water Act, things have started to change in a great manner and with improvement of sewage treatments things are no longer gloomy. With all these steps taken by the authorities and organizations it could be safely stated that the condition of the water and the subsidiary ecology are improving bur there is much more to be done. (Sands, 2003)

Annotated Bibliography

Birnie, Patricia W & Alan E. Boyle; 1995; Basic Documents on International Law and the Environment; Clarendon Press

This text is a collection of important and key documents related to International Law and the Environment. The selection is wide ranged and covers a lot of areas that is aligned with the needs and principals of the environment from the parameters of sustainable legal system. This compilation includes major relevant legal instruments and important treaties that are instrumental in shaping the protective international law of the environment.

Newell, Peter; 2001; Managing multinationals: the governance of investment for the environment; Journal of International Development; 13, 7; 907-919; Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK

This paper looks at the parameters of international environmental laws and the practical difficulties of implementation of these laws. It takes into consideration the aspects multinational corporate bodies and the effects of globalisation in the context of environmental initiatives.

It deals with the fundamental essence of responsibility and the use of international environmental laws in order to negate corporate litigation with the help of legal instruments for protection of the environment. The aspects of irresponsible investment procedures are dealt in the light of international environmental laws.

Sands, Philippe; 2003; Principles of International Environmental Law, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2nd edition

This is a revised edition and it includes case laws that are related to international legislation on environment protections. It has additional details about the developments since the publication of his older edition in 1994.

This book aims at specified notion and looks into the parameters on “how can international law reconcile the inherent and fundamental interdependence of the world environment“. (Sands, 2003) The writer provides the answer with arguments and informative details and makes this book a valuable text for environmental practitioners, academics and students.

Sands, Philippe & Paolo Galizzi; 2004; Documents in International Environmental Law; Cambridge University Press

This book is a volume that is considered as the companion edition of the book Principles of International Environmental Law. It is thus, a reciprocating text that should be used along with mentioned book.

It includes selected documents of treaties and legal decisions in the context of environmental protection. Here the documents are presented in an up-to-date manner and has a good indication of legal acts and their current status and is extremely helpful of environmental practitioners, academics and students.

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