Following APSA citation style guidelines, the citation usually includes the author(s) last name, year of publication and the page number(s) in parentheses.
A first initial can be used if two uncommon authors with the identical name appear. These are general APSA citation samples:
... the extended share of dilettantes (Wilson 1967, 85);
... informed in several studies (C. Hermann 1988, 42; M. Hermann 1989, 337).
Government Documents and Legal Citations in APSA Referencing
Generally, details on government documents must be in the reference list. For in-text citations – the source name, date and page number in parentheses should be sufficient. Y ou can use the standard form, citing other public documents in APSA. The methods of referring to government documents vary, but these APSA citation style examples should adequately generalize these approaches:
- (Congressional Record October 20, 1967, H7);
- (Papers of President George W. Bush March 24, 2001, 11).
Legal citations in APSA citation style include name of the case, year and number of page: (Shaker v. Carr 1966, 196). For detailed information you can use specialized APSA citation style guidelines or the U.S. Reports on Supreme Court resolutions.
Electronic Sources in APSA Citation Style
The reference for an online APSA citation source contains more elements like the author's name; publication date or its last review; document title; title of the entire paper; URL [in angle brackets] and date of access (in parentheses):
Central Intelligence Agency. 1999. Afghanistan/Government. World Fact Book, 1998-1999, Jan. 29
In addition, there are APSA citation style examples for email and newsgroup message correspondently:
- Albright, M. <firstname.lastname@example.org> 1999, Jan.5. Announcement on China [Personal email]. (1999, January 29);
- Stratford. <email@example.com>, 1999, Jan.29. Thailand/Myanmar. <STRATFOR/Global Intelligence Update> (1999, January 29).
Referencing in APSA: Television and Radio Programs
Sometimes, material from news broadcasts or documentaries may be quoted in papers. APSA citation style guidelines state that the relevant information should appear in the reference list as follows:
CBS News. December 19, 1986. Sixty Minutes.
National Public Radio. August 12, 1983. All Things Considered.
Some Recommendations for Formatting the Reference List in APSA Citation Style
- APSA citation style requires parenthetical references within the text and a reference list at the end.
- List of reference should be arranged alphabetically
- Referencing in APSA, the author should be the first element. Otherwise, use the editor’s name. If it is absent, you may start with the title.
- Titles of books and periodicals should be italicized.
- APSA citation style guidelines insist that each word of the title must be capitalized.
Check out our blog for other writing tips and good luck with your APSA-based paper!